Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 26

TECH TIPS
Bakker Magnetics - Improving Energy Density of Permanent Magnets for
e-Mobility Manufacturing
Natural enemies
For the production of permanent magnets, Bakker Magnetics has
a joint venture with one of the world's largest magnet manufacturers
in the San Huan group. IJsbrand Velzeboer is Bakker's sales
engineer e-mobility and keeps an eye on the magnet innovations
for the automotive industry. He has recently written a white paper
on the subject, from which this article is derived.
Standard technology, above, versus GBD technology below
Permanent magnets (PM) are the heart of the drive systems
used in the e-Mobility industry. The stronger the magnet is, the
higher the higher the motor's output and the smaller and lighter
the motor can be built. But a powerful magnet must also be able
to resist demagnetization by heat or a magnetic opposite field.
The Dutch company Bakker Magnetics uses two new techniques
with which permanent magnets can be produced even stronger
and more robust: Grain Boundary Diffusion (GBD) and Grain
Refining Technology (GRT). Major advantage: less Heavy Rare
Earth Elements (HREE) are used.
The quest for higher magnet grades never ends. Ever since
the industrial production of permanent magnets, scientists and
engineers have been developing new material compositions and
production techniques to increase the energy density of permanent
magnets. The newest and most powerful PMs are neodymium
magnets (NdFeB). And those magnets are also constantly
being developed. For example, the energy density (BHmax) of
neodymium magnets has increased over the past twenty years
from an average of 250 to 450 kJ / m3. The resistance (coercivity)
to demagnetization by heat or a magnetic opposite field is
also increasing. Nowadays, a PM with a coercivity of 2,800 kA/m
can already be produced very well in series.
IJsbrand Velzeboer
" If a magnet has 10% more energy density, you can directly
take that higher force off the weight of the magnet. So you need
less magnet volume and you can build lighter. This is important
for car manufacturers. But magnetic force is not the only thing
we have to take into account. A neodymium magnet has three
natural enemies: corrosion, high temperature and a magnetic opposite
field due to the eddy current effect. All these factors cause
a decay in force. We can combat corrosion by potting the magnet
or providing it with a good coating. Resistance to high temperature
and magnetic opposite field must be resolved in the raw
material composition and the production process. And there we
have now taken two important new steps with GBD and GRT. "
HREE
To explain the new techniques, the traditional production method
must first be considered. The following elements can be found in
an average neodymium magnet used in e-mobility:
Neodymium and Praseodymium are the Light Rare Earth Elements
(LREE). The Heavy Rare Earth Elements (HREE) Dysprosium
and Terbium are added to realize the higher resistance
to demagnetization. All metals are combined and melted. They
are then cooled by means of strip casting, after which flakes are
formed. These flakes are broken and milled into small particles.
The raw material mix is then pressed into a mold. The magnet
26 Magnetics Business & Technology * May/June 2022
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Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022

Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022
Editor’s Choice/ Features
GM Powers Ahead with e-Propulsion Innovation & Investment, Cutting Deals with VAC, GE Renewable Energy and MP Materials
Giant Permanent-Magnet Turbines from GE to Power World’s Largest Offshore Wind Farm
Peer into the Future of Magnetics for Energy at ARPA-E Summit
Research & Development
Bakker Magnetics - Improving Energy Density of Permanent Magnets for e-Mobility Manufacturing
Tech Tips
Product News
Industry News
Annual Industry Resource Guide
Events Calendar/ Advertising Index
Visions
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - Cover2
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 3
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - Editor’s Choice/ Features
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 5
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - GM Powers Ahead with e-Propulsion Innovation & Investment, Cutting Deals with VAC, GE Renewable Energy and MP Materials
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 7
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 8
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 9
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 10
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 11
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 12
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 13
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - Giant Permanent-Magnet Turbines from GE to Power World’s Largest Offshore Wind Farm
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 15
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 16
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 17
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 18
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 19
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 20
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 21
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - Research & Development
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 23
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 24
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 25
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - Tech Tips
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 27
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - Product News
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 29
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 30
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 31
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 32
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 33
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - Industry News
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 35
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 36
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 37
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 38
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 39
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - Annual Industry Resource Guide
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 41
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 42
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 43
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 44
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 45
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Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 47
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 48
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 49
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 50
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 51
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - Events Calendar/ Advertising Index
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - 53
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - Visions
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - Cover3
Magnetics Business & Technology - May/June 2022 - Cover4
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