Magnetics Business & Technology - January/February 2024 - 4

EDITOR'S CHOICE
Researchers Observe Topological Magnetic Monopoles and
Dipoles in a Ferromagnetic Material
Volume 23, Issue 1
Editor & Publisher
David Webster
Contributing Editor
Dr. Stan Trout
Director of Operations and
Support Services
Ross Webster
Figure:a) Microscopy image showing the magnetic domain wall and the singularities labelled B6
and B7. b,c) Magnetization around the Bloch points B6 and B7 obtained at MISTRAL with X-ray
vector magnetic tomography. d) Emergent field lines arising from the dipole formed by B6 and
B7.
A scientific collaboration between scientists from Universidad de Oviedo and ALBA Synchrotron
has achieved a detailed description of magnetic singularities and their interactions
from the analysis of data acquired at MISTRAL beamline with the magnetic vector tomography
technique. The results of the study, fully experimental not involving simulations and
published at Communications Physics, provide a solid ground to understand fundamental
knowledge about these singularities, what may have future applications on the design of
magnetic devices.
A non-saturated ferromagnetic material exhibits a non-uniform magnetization, forming a
mosaic of magnetic domains with different magnetizations. The separation between these
domains, domain walls, often intersect which results in exotic magnetization distributions
called magnetic singularities. A particular type of magnetic singularities, Bloch points, are
the focus of the study performed by researchers from Oviedo University and ALBA Synchrotron,
and can be visualized in figure panels b and c.
The work, published at Communications Physics, described how the magnetization behaves
around these Bloch points. At their location, the magnetization vectors cancel one
another since they point oppositely (-> <- or <- ->), but around them they form complex patterns
as the ones shown in figure at panels b and c, with vortex distribution.
A further description of the Bloch singularities is based on analogies with classical electrostatics.
The converging and diverging magnetizations remind the electric fields of negative
and positive point charges and lead to the concept of emergent magnetic field that, in
complete analogy to electric field and electrical charge, allows to define a magnetic charge
Q. Within this vision, Bloch points are described as magnetic monopoles of topological
magnetic charges Q that create the emergent field Be.
The continuous lines in panel d are the emergent magnetic field lines obtained directly
from the experimentally determined magnetization. B6 and B7 are two monopoles with
opposite charges forming a topological dipole with field lines connecting both charges. The
researchers identified single isolated monopoles and dipoles in various parts of the sample.
It remains to determine and understand the differences among monopoles and dipoles in
what refers to magnetic transport.
The measurements were taken using the X-ray vector magnetic tomography technique
at MISTRAL beamline at ALBA using circularly polarized synchrotron light. The research
allowed to describe how the magnetization is arranged around a Bloch point and to identify
magnetic dipoles formed by pairs of opposite topological charges. This knowledge may
have future potential applications in the field of magnetic devices such as storage memories
and RAM memories. For more information see www.albasynchrotron.es/en.
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Magnetics Business & Technology - January/February 2024

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Magnetics Business & Technology - January/February 2024

Contents
Magnetics Business & Technology - January/February 2024 - Cover1
Magnetics Business & Technology - January/February 2024 - Cover2
Magnetics Business & Technology - January/February 2024 - Contents
Magnetics Business & Technology - January/February 2024 - 4
Magnetics Business & Technology - January/February 2024 - 5
Magnetics Business & Technology - January/February 2024 - 6
Magnetics Business & Technology - January/February 2024 - 7
Magnetics Business & Technology - January/February 2024 - 8
Magnetics Business & Technology - January/February 2024 - 9
Magnetics Business & Technology - January/February 2024 - 10
Magnetics Business & Technology - January/February 2024 - 11
Magnetics Business & Technology - January/February 2024 - 12
Magnetics Business & Technology - January/February 2024 - 13
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Magnetics Business & Technology - January/February 2024 - Cover3
Magnetics Business & Technology - January/February 2024 - Cover4
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