IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 10S

10S
International Journal of Toxicology 43(Supplement 1)
Table 3. (continued)
Method of Manufacture
(b)(8) The additive is manufactured from hops as a nonisomerizable
nonvolatile hop resin by an initial extraction and fractionation using
one or more of the solvents listed in paragraph (b)(5) of this section
followed by a sequence of aqueous extractions. The additive is
added to the wort before or during cooking in the manufacture of
beer.
Solvent/Impurities restrictions
Removal of nonaqueous solvents to less than .5%.
Table 4. Fresh Humulus lupulus (Hops) Strobile Composition.38
Principle Components
Cellulose+lignin
Protein
α-Acids
β-Acids
Water
Minerals
Polyphenols and tannins
Lipids and fatty acids
Hop oil
Monosaccharides
Pectin
15.0
2.0-17.0
2.0-10.0
8.0-12.0
8.0
3.0-6.0
1.0-5.0
.5-3.0
2.0
2.0
Phenolic carboxylic acids
Benzoic acid derivatives
Cinnamic acid derivatives
Flavonoids
8- or 6-Prenylnaringenin
Acylphloroglucinol derivatives (multifidols)
Catechins and epicatechins
Kaempferol
Oligomeric proanthocyanidins
Quercetin
Xanthohumol
Table 5. Dried Humulus lupulus (Hops) Strobile Composition.2
Principle Components
Cellulose, etc.
Proteins
Amino acids
Moisture
Ash
Polyphenols (tannins)
Essential oil
Waxes and steroids
Monosaccharides
Pectins
Total resins
15
.1
10
8
4
.5-3
Trace-25
2
2
15-30
Concentration (%)
43
Higher molecular substances
Catechin tanning agents and tannins
<.01
.01-.03
< .01
.05-.50
.03-.30
.02-.24
.20-.50
.05-.23
.20-1.70
2.00-7.00
Table 6. Composition of Polyphenols and Their Concentrations in
Humulus lupulus (Hops).2
Concentration (%w/w)
40.0-50.0
Polyphenols and
Polyphenol Groups
Concentration (%)
In an analysis of Humulus lupulus (hops) samples by
high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode
array detection, over 100 compounds were in the polyphenol
fraction of Humulus lupulus (hops).40 The composition
of the polyphenols in Humulus lupulus (hops) is
provided in Table 6.
Flavonoids are composed of different chemical classes
such as flavones, isoflavones, flavonols, flavanols, flavanones,
and chalcones. These compounds differ in the level
of oxidation of the flavane nucleus and in the number and
position ofhydroxyl, methyl, and methoxyl substituents.41
Flavonoids, which make up .5% to 1.5% of the dried
strobile, include quercetin and kaempferol glycosides.42,43
Thirty prenylated, geranylated, oxidized and/or cyclized
chalcones have been isolated from the secretions of the
lupulin glands.17 The prenylated, geranylated flavonoids
constitute up to 1% ofthe dried strobile and 80% to 90% of
total flavonoids.19,20,44-46 The chalcone xanthohumol is
the most abundant prenylated flavonoid in fresh and
properly preserved strobiles (approximately .01 to .5%);
desmethylxanthohumol, dehydrocycloxanthohumol, and
the flavanones isoxanthohumol, 8-PN (25 to 60 mg/kg)
and 6-prenylnaringenin are also found in the
strobiles.19,20,44-47 A majority of the known flavonoids
from Humulus lupulus (hops) strobiles can be considered
to be derivatives of the compound 2',4,4',6'-tetrahydroxy3'-prenylchalcone
(chalcone numbering), commonly
known as desmethylxanthohumol.
The constituents and their ranges of concentration of
aqueous (hydrodistilled) Humulus Lupulus (hops) extracts
from 10 different cultivars are provided in Table 7.48

IJT - CIR - February 2024

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