IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 36S

36S
International Journal of Toxicology 43(Supplement 1)
comprise a quaternary ammonium salt, like the sultaines, but
differ structurally as carboxymethyl alkylamidopropyl
substituted ammoniums. The Panel also has previously reviewed
the safety ofalkyl betaines, and concluded that those
ingredients are " safe in the present practices of use and
concentration, when formulated to be non-irritating. " 3 The
alkyl betaines are also zwitterionic and comprise ammonium
salts, like the sultaines, but differ structurally as carboxymethyl
ammonium salts.
This safety assessment includes relevant published and unpublished
data that are available for each endpoint that is
evaluated. Published data are identified by conducting an exhaustive
search of the world's literature. A listing of the search
engines and websites that are used and the sources that are
typically explored, as well as the endpoints that the Panel typically
evaluates, is provided on the Cosmetic Ingredient Review
(CIR) website (https://www.cir-safety.org/supplementaldoc/
preliminary-search-engines-and-websites; https://www.cirsafety.org/supplementaldoc/cir-report-format-outline).
Unpublished
data are provided by the cosmetics industry, as
well as by other interested parties.
Some chemical and toxicological data on Cocamidopropyl
Hydroxysultaine and Lauramidopropyl Hydroxysultaine
included in this safety assessment were obtained
from robust summaries of data submitted to the European
Chemical Agency (ECHA) by companies as part of the
REACH chemical registration process. Additionally, some
data on Lauryl Hydroxysultaine was obtained from a hazard
assessment by Australia's National Industrial Chemicals
Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS). These
data summaries are available on the ECHA and NICNAS
websites, respectively, and when deemed appropriate, information
from the summaries has been included in this
report.4-6
Chemistry
Definition and Structure
The definition, structures, and functions ofthe alkyl sultaine
ingredients in this safety assessment are provided in Table 1.
All of the ingredients in this group comprise a core sultaine
structure, as described in Figure 1, and each comprises a
sulfopropyl quaternary ammonium salt. Those ingredients
with " amidopropyl " in the name vary structurally from the
other ingredients in this report at the " R " position. For
" amidopropyl " ingredients the R group is alkylamidopropyl,
versus simply alkyl for the other ingredients
(Figure 2).
Physical and Chemical Properties
Available physical and chemical properties for alkyl sultaines
are summarized in Table 2. These ingredients are readily
soluble in water.4-6
Method of Manufacturing
Cocamidopropyl Hydroxysultaine. A supplier has reported that
Cocamidopropyl Hydroxysultaine is produced by reacting an
inorganic salt with chlorinated epoxide followed by reacting
the resulting intermediate with amine.7 The process undergoes
at least 3 checks for quality control with final adjustments
made to yield the standard product.
In other submissions, suppliers have reported that CocaFigure
1. Sultaines, wherein R is alkyl or alkylamidopropyl, and R' is
hydrogen or hydroxyl group.
midopropyl Hydroxysultaine is produced through the amidation
reaction of coconut oil to form cocamidopropyl
dimethylamine.8,9 This intermediate is then quaternized with
3-chloro-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonate to form Cocamidopropyl
Hydroxysultaine.
Figure 2. Examples of alkyl and alkylamidopropyl sultaines.
https://www.cir-safety.org/supplementaldoc/preliminary-search-engines-and-websites https://www.cir-safety.org/supplementaldoc/preliminary-search-engines-and-websites https://www.cir-safety.org/supplementaldoc/cir-report-format-outline https://www.cir-safety.org/supplementaldoc/cir-report-format-outline

IJT - CIR - February 2024

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IJT - CIR - February 2024

Contents
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - Cover1
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - Cover2
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 1S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 2S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - Contents
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 4S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 5S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 6S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 7S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 8S
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IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 21S
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IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 23S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 24S
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IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 33S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 34S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 35S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 36S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 37S
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IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 39S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 40S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 41S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 42S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 43S
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IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 45S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 46S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 47S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 48S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 49S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 50S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 51S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 52S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 53S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 54S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 55S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 56S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 57S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 58S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 59S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 60S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 61S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 62S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 63S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 64S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 65S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 66S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 67S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 68S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 69S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 70S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 71S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 72S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 73S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 74S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 75S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 76S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 77S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 78S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 79S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 80S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 81S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 82S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 83S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 84S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 85S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 86S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 87S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 88S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 89S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 90S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 91S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 92S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 93S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 94S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 95S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 96S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 97S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 98S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 99S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 100S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 101S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 102S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 103S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 104S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 105S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 106S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 107S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 108S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 109S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 110S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 111S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 112S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 113S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 114S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 115S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 116S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 117S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 118S
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - Cover3
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - Cover4
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