IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 64S

CIR Supplement Manuscript
Safety Assessment of Ginkgo biloba-Derived
Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics
Christina L. Burnett*, Wilma F. Bergfeld**, Donald V. Belsito**,
Ronald A. Hill***, Curtis D. Klaassen**, Daniel C. Liebler***,
James G. Marks***, Ronald C. Shank***, Thomas J. Slaga**,
Paul W. Snyder**, Monice Fiume†, and Bart Heldreth††
Abstract
The Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety (Panel) assessed the safety of 10 Ginkgo biloba-derived ingredients, which are
most frequently reported to function in cosmetics as skin conditioning agents or antioxidants. The Panel reviewed the available
data to determine the safety of these ingredients. Because final product formulations may contain multiple botanicals, each
containing the same constituents of concern, formulators are advised to be aware of these constituents and to avoid reaching
levels that may be hazardous to consumers. The Panel was concerned about the presence of ginkgolic acid in cosmetics. Industry
should use good manufacturing practices to limit impurities. The Panel concluded that 5 Ginkgo biloba leaf-derived ingredients
are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment when formulated to be nonsensitizing;
data are insufficient to determine the safety of the remaining 5 ingredients under the intended conditions of use in
cosmetic formulations.
Keywords
Safety, Cosmetics, Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Extract, Ginkgo Biflavones, Ginkgo Biloba Leaf, Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Cell Extract, Ginkgo
Biloba Leaf Powder, Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Water, Ginkgo Biloba Meristem Cell, Ginkgo Biloba Nut Extract, Ginkgo Biloba Root
Extract, Ginkgo Leaf Terpenoids
Introduction
Most of the Ginkgo biloba-derived ingredients detailed in this
safety assessment are reported to function as skin conditioning
agents, while some are reported to function as antioxidants in
cosmetics, according to the web-based International Cosmetic
Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook (wINCI; Dictionary;see
Table 1).1 Reported functions of Ginkgo Leaf Terpenoids include
antiacne agent, antifungal agent, and external analgesic.
These functions are not considered cosmetic functions in the
United States (US) and, therefore, do not fall under the purview
of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR). This assessment of
the safety of the following 10 Ginkgo biloba-derived ingredients
is based on the data contained in this report:
Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Extract
Ginkgo Biflavones
Ginkgo Biloba Leaf
Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Cell Extract
Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Powder
Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Water
Ginkgo Biloba Meristem Cell
Ginkgo Biloba Nut Extract
Ginkgo Biloba Root Extract
Ginkgo Leaf Terpenoids
Ginkgo biloba leaves and nuts (also called seeds) have been
used as a source of traditional Chinese medicines.2 More
recently, extracts of the leaves of Ginkgo biloba have been
used as herbal medicines or dietary supplements in the
treatment of heart disease, eye ailments, tinnitus, cerebral and
peripheral vascular insufficiency, injuries involving brain
trauma, dementias, short-term memory improvement, cognitive
disorders secondary to depression, vertigo, and various
other cognitive disorders.2,3 Investigations into the efficacy of
the leaf extract for these uses are numerous and are mainly
based on oral administration of supplements. However, the
available toxicity data that corresponds to specific use ofthese
ingredients as cosmetics are extremely limited. The focus of
this safety assessment will be on data relevant to the use of
*Cosmetic Ingredient Review Senior Scientific Analyst/Writer
**Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety Member
***Expert Panel for Cosmetic Ingredient Safety Former Member
†Cosmetic Ingredient Review Senior Director
††Cosmetic Ingredient Review Executive Director
Corresponding Author:
Bart Heldreth, Executive Director, Cosmetic Ingredient Review, 1620 L
Street, NW, Suite 1200, Washington, DC 20036, USA.
Email: cirinfo@cir-safety.org
International Journal of Toxicology
2024, Vol. 43(Supplement 1) 64S-81S
© The Author(s) 2023
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DOI: 10.1177/10915818231210792
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IJT - CIR - February 2024

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IJT - CIR - February 2024 - Cover1
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IJT - CIR - February 2024 - Cover3
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