IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 66S

66S
International Journal of Toxicology 43(Supplement 1)
Physical Properties
Product specifications for Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Extract (prepared
in water) and Ginkgo Biloba Nut Extract (prepared in
glycerin) reported by a supplier are described in Table 2.
Methods of Manufacturing
Gingko Biloba Leaf Extract. A general description of
manufacturing for " medicinal " GBE reported that the leaves
ofthe Ginkgo biloba tree are harvested either mechanically or
by hand from plantations or in the wild.3 The leaves are then
dried and pressed into balls. A dry extract from the dried leaf
of Ginkgo biloba can be manufactured using acetone/water
and subsequent purification steps without addition of concentrates
or isolated ingredients.
GBEs may be full extracts or standardized extracts.4 Full
extracts are prepared with alcohol and contain all constituents
soluble in alcohol. Standardized extracts (one of which is
referred to as EGb 761® in published literature) are more
common, especially in herbal supplements, and are prepared
in manufacturer-dependent multi-step processes (Figure 1).
These processes may include additional steps in which some
compounds, such as flavonoids and lactones, are enriched
while others, such as ginkgolic acids, are removed.
A manufacturer has reported that one Ginkgo Biloba Leaf
Extract product is produced through extraction with an
ethanol-water solution, while another product is produced
through extraction with an ethanol-water solution before being
evaporated and resolved in 50% butylene glycol.6
Ginkgo Biloba Meristem Cell. Ginkgo Biloba Meristem Cell is
produced by sterilizing cambium-containing tissue from the
Ginkgo biloba plant, isolating the cambial meristem cells from
the tissue, and then culturing the cells for proliferation.7
Table 2. Supplier Product Specifications for Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Extract and Ginkgo Biloba Nut Extract.16
Specification
Appearance
Microbial Plate Count (opg) >100
Odor
pH (@ 25°C)
>100
Characteristic
4.8 (range 4.0-6.5)
Refractive Index (@ 25°C) 1.3332 (range 1.3295-1.3395)
Solubility
Specific Gravity (@ 25°C) 1.00 (range .99-1.02)
opg = organisms per gram.
Soluble in any proportion in water
Characteristic
4.7 (range 4.0-6.5)
1.3982 (range 1.3920-1.5000)
Soluble in any proportion in water
1.12 (range 1.05-1.15)
Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Extract (Prepared in Water) Ginkgo Biloba Nut Extract (Prepared in Glycerin)
Clear to slightly hazy liquid; light to medium yellow Colorless to light amber liquid
Figure 1. General manufacturing process of a standardized Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (EGb 761®).5

IJT - CIR - February 2024

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