IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 69S

Burnett et al.
69S
Table 4. Frequency (2018) and Concentration of use (2014) According to Duration and Type of Exposure for Ginkgo biloba-Derived
Ingredients.20-22
# of Uses Max Conc of Use (%) # of Uses Max Conc of Use (%) # of Uses Max Conc of Use (%)
Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Powder
Totals†
Duration of Use
Leave-On
Rinse Off
Diluted for (Bath) Use
Exposure Type
Eye Area
Incidental Ingestion
Dermal Contact
Deodorant (underarm)
Hair - Non-Coloring
Hair-Coloring
Nail
Mucous Membrane
Baby Products
5
3
2
NR
1
NR
Incidental Inhalation-Spray 1a;1b
Incidental Inhalation-Powder 1b
3
NR
2
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Extract*
712
.000002-.25
626
86
NR
215
5
4; 163a; 116b
44; 116b
651
NR
48
NR
5
19
NR
.000002-.24
.00002-.25
NR
.00001-.01
.00002-0.2
.05; .00005-.0041a
.00001-.05; .00038-0.1c
.00001-.25
NR
.00005-.001
NR
.000002-.24
.00002-0.2
.005
*Combined with the generic entry " Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo) Extract " in the VCRP database, which is not an INCI name.
aIt is possible these products may be sprays, but it is not specified whether the reported uses are sprays.
bNot specified whether a powder or a spray, so this information is captured for both categories of incidental inhalation.
cIt is possible these products may be powders, but it is not specified whether the reported uses are powders.
Table 5. Ingredients Not Reported in use.20-22
Ginkgo Biflavones
Ginkgo Biloba Leaf
Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Water
Ginkgo Biloba Meristem Cell
Ginkgo Biloba Root Extract
Ginkgo Leaf Terpenoids
Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Cell Extract
deficits, dementia, and other organic brain syndromes when
extracted with acetone/water.14 It is not approved when extracted
with other solvents due to lack of supporting safety data.
Standardized GBEs and/or constituents of the extracts,
such as bilobalide, kaempferol and ginkgetin, have also been
studied for potential neuroprotective effects against Huntington's
disease, and for anti-inflammatory and analgesic
effects on post-surgical incisions. Additionally, these extracts
have been researched for their effects on diseases such as
osteoarthritis and atopic dermatitis, for protective effects
(antioxidant) against radiation and chemotherapy-induced
toxicity, for anticancer effects, and for therapy for vitiligo.33-41
GBE as an herbal supplement may interact with pharmaceutical
drugs and act as or enhance anticoagulants, antiinflammatory
agents, antihypertensives, and/or anesthetics
which may lead to hemorrhage, apraxia, hematoma, hyphema,
permanent neurological deficit, and death.42,43 The Physician's
Desk Reference for Herbal Medicines reports major
drug interaction risks with anticoagulants, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory
drugs (NSAIDs), and trazodone and moderate
drug interaction risks with low molecular weight heparins and
thrombolytic agents.3 GBE may also interact with anticonvulsants,
buspirone, insulin, monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors,
nicardipine, nifedipine, omeprazole, papaverine, St.
John's wort, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and thiazide
diuretics.
The nuts of Ginkgo biloba are a delicacy in Japan and
China, but must be removed completely from the pulp, boiled
or roasted, and eaten sparingly (limit 8-10 per day).2 In
traditional Chinese medicine, the nut is dried and used to
treat such ailments as asthma, cough, bronchitis, scabies, and
sores.
Toxicokinetic Studies
In general, toxicokinetics data are not expected to be found on
botanical ingredients because each botanical ingredient is a
complex mixture of hundreds of constituents. However, there
have been many pharmacokinetics studies on GBEs, specifically
on some of the key constituents, which indicate GBE
may be well absorbed after oral administration.9
Ginkgo Biloba Nut Extract
27
NR
17
10
NR
NR
NR
3a;7b
7b
26
NR
1
NR
NR
1
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR
NR = Not reported.
†Because each ingredient may be used in cosmetics with multiple exposure types, the sum of all exposure types may not equal the sum of total uses.

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