IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 7S

Becker et al.
7S
to evaluate the potential toxicity ofeach ofthe Humulus lupulus
(hops)-derived ingredients as whole, complex ingredients. Except
for specific constituents of concern, the Panel is not reviewing
information that may be available to assess the potential
toxicity ofthe individual constituents derived from the Humulus
lupulus (hops) plant.
The Panel has reported on related ingredients that can be used
to support the safety of the Humulus lupulus (hops)-derived
ingredients. The information on these related ingredients may be
relevant for this safety assessment. The Panel reviewed the safety
of phytosterols, which are plant-derived sterols that are likely
constituents of most of the Humulus lupulus (hops)-derived
ingredients12 in 2013, and concluded that the phytosterols are
safe as used.13
The names of the ingredients in this report are written in
accordance with the Dictionary, as shown above, capitalized
without italics and without abbreviations. When referring to
the plant from which these ingredients are derived, the
standard taxonomic practice of using italics will be followed
(e.g., Humulus lupulus).
Often in the published literature, the information provided
is not sufficient to determine how well the tested substance
represents the cosmetic ingredient; the taxonomic name is
used, unless it is clear that the test substance is similar to the
cosmetic ingredient. If it is similar to the cosmetic ingredients,
then the INCI name is used.
This safety assessment includes relevant published and unpublished
data that are available for each endpoint that is
evaluated. Published data are identified by conducting an exhaustive
search of the world's literature. A listing of the search
engines and websites that are used and the sources that are
typically explored, as well as the endpoints that the Panel typically
evaluates, is provided on the Cosmetic Ingredient Review
(CIR) website (https://www.cir-safety.org/supplementaldoc/
preliminary-search-engines-and-websites;
https://www.cirsafety.org/supplementaldoc/cir-report-format-outline).
Unpublished
data are provided by the cosmetics industry, as well as by
other interested parties.
Chemistry
Definition
The definitions of these Humulus lupulus (hops)-derived ingredients
(with technical names, included for cross reference)
are provided in Table 1.
The terms " cone " and " strobile " are synonymous and refer
to the structures formed by the female Humulus lupulus (hops)
plant after the flowers have bloomed, whether or not they have
been fertilized.
Plant Identification
The genus Humulus consists ofdioecious, perennial, climbing
vines and bines (i.e., a twining plant stem or flexible shoot).14
This genus belongs to the Cannabaceae family ofthe Urticales
order which, in 2003, was incorporated into the natural order
ofRosales.15 The plant, which is native to Europe and western
Asia, is now cultivated in North and South America, Africa,
Asia and Australia and is invasive in many areas.3 Cultivation
is predominately in the northwestern United States and
Germany.2 Within Humulus lupulus, there are five taxonomic
subspecies based on morphological properties and geographical
location: Humulus lupulus var. lupulus, Humulus
lupulus var. cordifolius, Humulus lupulus var. neomexicanus,
Humulus lupulus var. pubescens, and Humulus lupulus var.
lupuloides.16 Over 100 cultivars have been named.17 It is not
known whether a single or multiple varieties are used in
cosmetics.
While the Humulus lupulus (hops) plant is typically dioecious
(i.e., the male and female flowers usually develop on
separate plants), occasional fertile monoecious individual
plants have been reported.18 When grown for beer, viable
seeds are undesirable; therefore, only female plants are grown
in hops fields to prevent pollination. Female plants are
propagated vegetatively, and male plants are culled if plants
are grown from seeds. Under natural conditions, the flowers
are wind pollinated and the female inflorescence develops to
form a strobile (or cone). Only the strobiles of the female
plants are able to develop the lupulin glands that secrete a fine
yellow resinous powder.2 These glands secrete predominantly
bitter acids and hop oil, the constituents of which include
phytoestrogens such as 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN) and other
prenylflavonoids.19,20
Humulus lupulus (hops) is a climbing perennial bine, which
means that it grows in a helix around a support and uses
downward-facing bristles/hooked hairs for grip instead of
tendrils or suckers as would a vine.3,6,21 Generally, the bines
are trained to 25 ft (7.6 m) or higher on a trellis. Lateral arms
develop at the nodes, producing flowers at their terminal buds.
The green to yellowish-brown leaves have three or five lobes,
depending on the variety, and are hairy on both sides; the
margins of the cordate (heart-shaped) leaves are serrated and
the petioles are slightly fleshy with stout hooked hairs. Humulus
lupulus (hops) is a perennial plant that regrows each
spring from the rhizomes of an underground rootstock in
commercial hops production.
Physical and Chemical Properties
The chemical and physical properties for Humulus Lupulus
(Hops) Extract are presented in Table 2.
Once harvested, Humulus lupulus (hops) strobiles deteriorate
upon aging and exposure to the atmosphere.3 The stability
of stored strobiles and ethanol extracts, as measured by
humulones, lupulones, and xanthohumol content, is optimal in
70% ethanol.22
Green Humulus lupulus (hops) strobiles have a variety of
odors including: citrus, tropical fruit, stone fruit, pine, cedar,
floral, spicy, herbal, earthy, tobacco, onion/garlic and grassy.23
https://www.cir-safety.org/supplementaldoc/preliminary-search-engines-and-websites https://www.cir-safety.org/supplementaldoc/preliminary-search-engines-and-websites https://www.cir-safety.org/supplementaldoc/cir-report-format-outline https://www.cir-safety.org/supplementaldoc/cir-report-format-outline

IJT - CIR - February 2024

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IJT - CIR - February 2024 - Cover3
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - Cover4
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