IJT - CIR - February 2024 - 83S

Burnett et al.
83S
each of the Butyrospermum parkii (shea)-derived ingredients
as a whole, complex mixture.
The ingredient names, according to the Dictionary, are written
as listed above, without italics and without abbreviations. When
referring to the tree from which these ingredients are derived, the
standard scientific practice of using italics will be followed (e.g.,
Butyrospermum parkii). The shea tree is also known taxonomically
as Vitellaria paradoxa and is referred to as such by many
references and by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Shea oleine ( " oleine " is an oleate triglyceride) is listed as a
cosmetic ingredient in the FDAVoluntary Cosmetic Registration
Program (VCRP) database, but it is not an ingredient listed in the
Dictionary.1,3 This chemical has been included in this report
because use as a cosmetic ingredient may be demonstrated.
(Triolein, the triester of glycerin and oleic acid, was previously
reviewed by the Panel and was found safe as used in cosmetics).4
This safety assessment includes relevant published and unpublished
data that are available for each endpoint that is
evaluated. Published data are identified by conducting an exhaustive
search of the world's literature. A listing of the search
engines and websites that are used and the sources that are
typically explored, as well as the endpoints that the Panel typically
evaluates, is provided on the Cosmetic Ingredient Review
(CIR) website (https://www.cir-safety.org/supplementaldoc/
preliminary-search-engines-and-websites;
https://www.cirsafety.org/supplementaldoc/cir-report-format-outline).
Unpublished
data are provided by the cosmetics industry, as well as by
other interested parties.
Chemistry
Definition and Plant Identification
The definitions and functions of the Butyrospermum parkii
(shea)-derived ingredients included in this report are provided
in Table 1. The raw materials for the Butyrospermum parkii
(shea)-derived ingredients found in this report are obtained
from the tree Butyrospermum parkii, which grows mainly in
equatorial Africa.5-7
Physical and Chemical Properties
Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter, depending on level of
refinement, is an off-white or grey to yellowish-cream tallowlike
solid, with a specific gravity of.918 at 15°C and a melting
point of 37.8°C (reported range: 28-46°C).8-13 Butyrospermum
Parkii (Shea) Oil is a pale yellow liquid.14 Shea
Oleine is a clear yellow liquid, with a characteristic fatty odor
and a density of .922-.928 at 20°C.15
Method of Manufacture
The general description of the method of manufacturing of
several Butyrospermum parkii (shea)-derived ingredients is
described in Figure 1.16
ButyrospermumParkii (Shea) ButterUnsaponifiables. Butyrospermum
Parkii (Shea) Butter Unsaponifiables is obtained by molecular
distillation and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Butyrospermum
Parkii (Shea) Butter.17
Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Nut Shell Powder. According to a
supplier, Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Nut Shell Powder is
obtained by removing the shea seed from the shell and drying
the shell in the sun, followed by grinding and sieving the
resultant product.18 The ground shell is then sterilized and
examined by quality control.
Butyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Seedcake Extract. Butyrospermum
Parkii (Shea) Seedcake Extract is produced by solubilizing the
seedcake of Butyrospermum parkii in a mixture of water and
butylene glycol (50%/50%, v/v), and then separating the
soluble and insoluble phases, filtering, and sterilizing.19
Composition/Impurities
The mean tocopherol concentrations and fatty acid compositions
of Butyrospermum parkii (shea)-derived ingredients
are provided in Table 2 and Table 3, respectively.
While Butyrospermum parkii grows mainly in equatorial
Africa, subtle differences in geographic location and climate
affect the levels of the natural compounds, such as
tocopherol and fatty acids, in Butyrospermumparkii (shea)derived
ingredients.5,6
A study ofButyrospermum Parkii (Shea) Butter (described
as kernel fats; n-hexane extraction) from 36 samples from
seven different countries found the principal triacylglycerols
to be stearic-oleic-stearic (mean 31.2% of total triacylglycerols),
stearic-oleic-oleic (27.7%), and oleic-oleicoleic
(10.8%).20 Triterpene ester contents ranged from .5 to
6.5% and consisted of α-amyrin cinnamate (mean 29.3% of
total triterpene esters), butyrospermol cinnamate (14.8%),
α-amyrin acetate (14.1%), lupeol cinnamate (9.0%), β-amyrin
cinnamate (7.6%), lupeol acetate (7.2%), butyrospermol acetate
(5.8%), and β-amyrin acetate (4.9%) (Figure 2).
The same researchers identified the content and composition of
triterpene alcohol fractions of the non-saponifiable lipids of Butyrospermum
Parkii (Shea) Butter from 36 samples.21 The shea
kernels contained 30-54% fat, of which 2-12% were nonsaponifiable
lipids. Triterpene alcohol content in the nonsaponifiable
lipids was 22-72%. The triterpene alcohol fractions
contained α-amyrin, β-amyrin, lupeol, and butyrospermol with
minor or trace amounts ofψ-taraxasterol, taraxasterol, parkeol, 24methylene-24-dihydroparkeol,
24-methylenecycloartanol, dammaradienol,
and 24-methylenedammarenol.
An analysis of the phenolic constituents of shea kernels
by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)
identified the following catechin compounds: gallic acid,
catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, gallocatechin,
epigallocatechin, gallocatechin gallate, and epigallocatechin
gallate.7 Quercetin and trans-cinnamic acid
https://www.cir-safety.org/supplementaldoc/preliminary-search-engines-and-websites https://www.cir-safety.org/supplementaldoc/preliminary-search-engines-and-websites https://www.cir-safety.org/supplementaldoc/cir-report-format-outline https://www.cir-safety.org/supplementaldoc/cir-report-format-outline

IJT - CIR - February 2024

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IJT - CIR - February 2024 - Cover1
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IJT - CIR - February 2024 - Contents
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IJT - CIR - February 2024 - Cover3
IJT - CIR - February 2024 - Cover4
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