Automotive Engineering - April 2021 - 18

Optimizing hybrids

COVER STORY

FOR COST AND
EFFICIENCY
AVL engineers
detail a modular
engine program
suitable for
all forms of
hybridization.

Figure 1: Diversity of powertrain electrification by vehicle use.

T

18 April 2021

Figure 2: Degrees of electrification: from ICE to fuel cell.
of topology for each application is dependent on the use case. For
the extreme cases (like a heavy-duty truck or small city car) the
choice is relatively clear; for a mid-sized SUV, located in the middle of
this chart, many different configurations could be considered.
The present study was based on a D-segment SUV application.
This represents both a technical challenge in terms of the legislative
boundaries of emission and fuel-consumption targets, and a key market segment responsible for a large share of fleet fuel consumption.
As the fleet targets are reduced, the share of vehicles with higher
degrees of electrification must be increased.
AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING

BOTH IMAGES: AVL

he electrification of the powertrain is a prerequisite to meet future fuel consumption limits,
while the internal combustion engine (ICE) will
remain a key element of most production-volume-relevant powertrain concepts.
The range presented by AVL will include parallel hybrids, 48V- or high-voltage mild or full hybrids, up to
serial hybrids. In the first configurations, the ICE is the
main propulsion, requiring the whole engine speed and
load range including the transient operation. In serial
hybrid applications, the vehicle is generally electrically
driven; the ICE provides power to drive the generator,
either exclusively or supporting a battery charging concept. When the ICE is not mechanically coupled to the
drivetrain, a reduction of the operating range and thus a
partial simplification of the ICE is achievable.
The diversity of possible powertrain variants presents a challenge for vehicle OEMs and powertrain or
engine manufacturers, implying parallel development
of many different technologies as well as increased
manufacturing complexity.
Figure 1 illustrates the large variety of electrification
topologies currently in use, including battery- and fuel-cell electric as well as electrified ICE based powertrains in various degrees of hybridization. The choice



Automotive Engineering - April 2021

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