Automotive Engineering - June 2021 - 8

TECHNOLOGY REPORT
are, the better it is and the smaller the
cluster are, the better you are in terms
of measurement. It's a great improvement
because... it [gives] a performance
of the selectivity within the use of an
electronic nose. "
Current challenges remain correlating
the results gained from sensor
testing with the VOC (volatile organic
compounds) intensity scale grades
(1-6) used by human testers. But according
to Bultel, the results from his
research indicate that digital olfaction
can serve as an objective analysis tool
for the aromatic quality of automotive
plastics emissions.
" It's not that easy to make a link between
the VOC analysis, a separation of
those VOC and the hedonic tone, " he
explained. " There is not always a causal
relationship between the odorant that
are present in the headspace or in the
sample that is smelled, and the analytical
composition of a sample. "
Repeatability and a standard
The creation of this objective odor data
will be required before a global standard
can be formed. Equally useful, Bultel
explained, " the acquisition of odor-sensor
data permits statistical metrics that
can be used to evaluate repeatability
and reproducibility to ensure the consistency
in evaluation methods. " The upshot,
he remarked, " is these digital devices
can be used to standardize olfactive
intensity tests, and while more work
needs to be done to link human perception
to instrument outputs, digital olfaction
is a possible solution to challenges
inherent in existing odor tests. "
Bultel noted that the work at
Aryballe will help in crafting a proposal
on a quantifiable odor rating which
mimics the established norms from the
human panels, in a way which is reproducible
and independent of variation
between individual testers. " Ultimately, "
he proposed, " standardization of odor
testing with consistent, repeatable and
cost-effective digital olfaction methods
can bring traceability and credibility to
Tier-1 suppliers that translate to endproduct
quality for OEMs. "
Paul Seredynski
8 June 2021
ELECTRIFICATION
Toward an electric two-wheeled Triumph
Aesthetics of the TE-1 will not be understated, as shown by this rendering of the prototype. The electric
sportbike is said to incorporate innovations in battery technology, mass, and powertrain performance.
There is something of a TV series about
Triumph Motorcycles' radical TE-1 electric
project. It's an intriguing story unfolding
through four episodes, or phases,
following its conception. Phase 2 of
what promises to be a significant addition
to the motorcycle world recently
concluded, with a further two phases to
go. We'll have to wait for all to be revealed
in the last scenes but known
targets for the electric sportbike include
a range of 120 miles (193 km), curb
weight of 485 lb (220 kg) and battery
charge time of 0-80% in 20 minutes.
The narrative of the TE-1 project
[https://www.sae.org/news/2020/06/
williams-battery-technology] is more of
a how-they-are-doing-it documentary,
rather than a who-dunnit mystery.
Particular focus is on the all-new battery
system developed by Williams
Advanced Engineering (WAE). While
the project remains commercially confidential,
Triumph's official communiqué
on completion of Phase 2 was positive,
particularly because work has progressed
despite the COVID-19 pandemic.
Key project milestones include test results
showing significant innovation in
overall mass, battery technology, and
powertrain performance that exceed the
target set by the U.K. Automotive
Council for 2025. The prototype traction
motor has been bench tested and is said
to meet required performance criteria.
The battery has also been benchtested,
achieving 170-kW peak power,
90-kW continuous power, and demonstrating
15kW-h capacity; Triumph's targets
specify 130kW of peak power and
80kW continuous power. With a liquidcooled
e-motor, SiC (silicon carbide)
switching, increased energy density and
package efficiency, advanced cell module
specification and all-new battery
management, the development thus far
is encouraging to Triumph, WAE, and
other partners WMG (at University of
Warwick) and Integral Powertrain. The
project has U.K. government backing.
Although TE-1 remains a hush-hush
project, Paul McNamara, WAE's
Technical Director, discussed its raison
d'ĂȘtre and basic requirements exclusively
with SAE International. " The fundamental
challenge when considering
battery technology within any vehicle is
one of making sure that for a given
cost, the power, energy, mass and volume
of the battery system, are each
meeting the targets of the vehicle, " he
said. " That balance is made even more
AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING
TRIUMPH MOTORCYCLES
https://www.sae.org/news/2020/06/williams-battery-technology

Automotive Engineering - June 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Automotive Engineering - June 2021

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