Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - 21

COVER STORY
" There's the recycling path, the secondary-use path and the
refurbished path. We don't yet know where the market will go. "
The average metal atom travels 50,000 miles from the mine before it's used in an EV battery pack, according
to Redwood Materials. Recycled metals will make up 30% of the materials in the company's cathodes by 2025.
third spoke facility in Arizona last May, with the ability
to process up to 10,000 tons of battery manufacturing
scrap and depleted li-ion batteries annually.
The company's hub operation in Rochester, New York
is being enlarged by more than 40%, increasing its processing
capacity from 25,000 tons of black mass to
35,000 annually. That translates to 90,000 tons of EV
batteries, Phalpher said. " We think the batteries from
180,000 EVs can be shredded every year, " he stated.
" The secret sauce is building a system and flow sheet
optimized for black mass. It comes out as a wet black
powder that is 40% graphite. Keeping it wet prevents
the nickel and cobalt dust from becoming airborne. "
Tim Grewe, director of electrification strategy and cell
engineering at GM, said the company is pursuing various
paths to keep batteries out of landfills and deliver metals
at less than the cost of mining them-including the partnership
with Li-Cycle in Ohio. " There's the recycling path,
the secondary-use path and the refurbished path, " he
said. " We don't yet know where the market will go. "
AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING
Melissa Flaherty, director of sustainable EV battery ecosystem at
GM, added that the goal is to " maximize the recycled content of the
recyclable materials " in its packs. Since 2013, she said, GM has recycled
or reused all of the packs it gets from customers, including
those replaced through warranties.
Redwood: full-circle pioneer
Redwood Materials, which said in 2021 that it had raised $775 million
from investors and venture firms, is headed by former Tesla CTO JB
Straubel. With approximately 500 employees (and plans to hire 500
more), the company intends to not only capture metals from old batteries,
but process those materials into new cathodes and anode copper
foils-critical components now mainly made in Asia. Redwood
says it can recapture 95% of the elements-including nickel, cobalt,
lithium, and copper-from li-ion batteries, then reprocess them into
new battery materials for its customers.
The company currently processes six gigawatt-hours of li-ion batteries
annually but is expanding rapidly. By 2025, Redwood aims to
ramp up to annual production of 100 gigawatt-hours of cathode
October 2022 21
REDWOOD MATERIALS

Automotive Engineering - October 2022

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Automotive Engineering - October 2022

Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - Intro
Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - Sponsor1
Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - CVRA
Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - CVRB
Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - CVR1
Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - CVR2
Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - 1
Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - 2
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Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - CVR4
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