Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - 24

CLOSING THE LOOP ON
EV BATTERY RECYCLING
" We need to recapture as much as possible, because we will
need way more EV batteries than we currently can build
with available virgin materials. "
Redwood Materials is both a recycler and source for anode and cathode materials.
The company has agreements with Ford, Toyota, Volvo, Proterra and Panasonic.
percent in China this year-recycling is still economically viable, " he said.
Georgeson at Redwood Materials explained that because recycling is
not the company's primary business, reductions in certain metals
shouldn't be a big factor. " Everything we recycle gives us a strategic
source of metals that makes cathode and anode components, " she said.
It's likely that manufacturers will be able to reduce, but not eliminate,
problematic elements from their batteries in the short term, Lin
said. Battery chemistries exist that don't use any cobalt or nickel,
such as lithium-ion phosphate (LiFePO4, or LFP), but lower energy
density remains a problem, he said. Solid-state batteries, which can
be made without nickel and cobalt and do away with liquid electrolyte,
are another technology in development.
Lithium-ion battery recycling does have some skeptics. Almonty's
Black says that some components-including printed circuit
boards-can't be recycled, and that handling cobalt will be very
problematic for the industry.
Reusing old batteries
Used EV battery packs don't have to be reduced to their component
metals; they can also be reused. Two of the more promising avenues
24 October 2022
are stationary backup for intermittent renewable energy
generation, and as storage at EV charging sites to
offset utilities experiencing peak demand.
Battery packs can be repurposed from EVs that
have been in accidents, or that have reached the end
of their useful lives. The second-life battery supply for
stationary uses could be more than 200 gigawatthours
by 2030, with the market propelled by 30 to
70% lower cost, said McKinsey and Co. Even after
they're no longer able to power a car efficiently, they
may still have 80% of their initial storage capacity, the
company's report said. The Union of Concerned
Scientists (UCS) estimates that used EV batteries
could continue to be of service for five to eight years
in secondary applications.
California has 42% of the world's EVs, according to
the Orange County Register, and a bill enacted in 2018
calls for regulations to ensure that " as close to 100 percent
as possible of lithium-ion batteries in the state are
reused or recycled at end-of-life. " But getting to that
admirable goal is a challenge.
AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERING
REDWOOD MATERIALS

Automotive Engineering - October 2022

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Automotive Engineering - October 2022

Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - Intro
Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - Sponsor1
Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - CVRA
Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - CVRB
Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - CVR1
Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - CVR2
Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - 1
Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - 2
Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - 3
Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - 4
Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - 5
Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - 6
Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - 7
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Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - 9
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Automotive Engineering - October 2022 - CVR4
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