Truck & Off-Highway Engineering - June 2022 - 13

TECHNICAL INNOVATIONS
ALTERNATIVE FUELS
New biodiesel strains offer measurable gains
It is noteworthy that the testing determined
CO and THC (total unburned
hydrocarbons) reductions were not as
significant as the reduction in NOx due
to the already low CO and THC emissions
of modern diesel engines.
However, when using 100% HVO fuel
there was still a 6% reduction in NOx
and significantly lower smoke comSälen
Buss is currently operating two 50-seat Isuzu NovoCiti Life buses on pure HVO in Sweden.
Extensive research and development of
Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) as a
renewable and environmentally friendly
fuel for diesel engines has been carried
out by various OEMs and Tier 1s over the
past decade. Its use has been evaluated
for a wide variety of applications, including
on-road commercial vehicles, agricultural
machines and marine engines.
HVOs usually are refined from vegetable
oil feedstock by hydrocracking and then
hydrogenating vegetable oil. This process
reduces the size of the molecules in
the triglycerides or fatty acids while also
adding hydrogen to them.
The advantage of hydrotreating vegetable
oils for this purpose is that it
produces a high-quality fuel without
compromising engine performance,
exhaust aftertreatment devices or exhaust
emissions. HVOs offer potential
environmental benefits even over traditional
biodiesel, including tailpipe emissions
in the form of nitrogen oxide
(NOx), CO2
and other pollutants that
are harmful to the earth's atmosphere.
Demonstrating environmental
benefits
A 2008 SAE technical paper authored
by researchers at the Helsinki
University of Technology outlined the
tradeoffs between NOx/particulate
emissions and fuel consumption of a
heavy-duty diesel engine when using
TRUCK & OFF-HIGHWAY ENGINEERING
HVO as a fuel. The paper highlights the
advantages of HVOs over other types of
biodiesels and catalogs overall performance
compared to sulfur-free diesel.
The paper states, " Hydrotreated vegetable
oils do not have the detrimental
effects of ester-type biodiesel
fuels, like increased
NOx emission, deposit
formation, storage stability
problems, more rapid aging
of engine oil or poor
cold properties. HVOs are
straight chain paraffinic
hydrocarbons that are free
of aromatics, oxygen and
sulfur and have high cetane
numbers. "
Fuel consumption was
studied by utilizing various
fuel injection timing
in a turbocharged charge
air cooled common rail
heavy-duty diesel engine.
Tested fuels were sulfurfree
diesel fuel, HVO and
a 30% HVO/70% diesel
blend. The tests conducted
determined that " the
use of (HVO) enabled
reductions in CO, THC
and NOx emission, and in
engine smoke without
any changes to the engine
or its controls. "
pared to sulfur-free EN 590 diesel fuel.
" The results of this study suggest that
with optimized fuel injection parameters
for HVO, even more significant
reductions in emissions can be
achieved, " the paper concluded.
The paper went on to state, " When
the SFC of the engine was kept constant
with all fuels, HVO and EN 590-30
provided even more significant reduction
in NOx emission with smoke still
clearly lower than with EN 590 diesel
fuel. The use of 100% HVO led to 16%
lower NOx and to 23% lower smoke
than the use of EN 590 diesel fuel. "
Kohler approved use of EN15940-compliant HVOs for its entire
diesel ICE lineup in Europe. No engine modifications are required
to operate on pure or blended HVO.
June 2022 13
FROM TOP: SÄLEN; KOHLER

Truck & Off-Highway Engineering - June 2022

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Truck & Off-Highway Engineering - June 2022

Truck & Off-Highway Engineering - June 2022 - CVR4
Truck & Off-Highway Engineering - June 2022 - CVRA
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Truck & Off-Highway Engineering - June 2022 - CVR2
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