Aerospace & Defense Technology - April 2021 - 31

Tech Briefs

the prediction of the onset and extent of
stall in transient separated turbulent
boundary layers.
This research also responds to previous works on unsteady/steady turbulent boundary layers that have highlighted a number of related issues: (a)
the urgent need of high-resolution direct measurements of the mean and
fluctuating components of the skin
friction, since it seems that the behavior of the near wall as well as the outer
wall region depends on the friction velocity and in all these years of turbulent boundary layer research (especially zero pressure gradient) the
friction velocity has been inferred, for
the most part, from the Clauser chart.
Some attempts have been made to
measure directly the wall shear stress,
yet some of these measurements have
not been taken into consideration
since they do not agree with the law of
the wall. In addition, the most reliable

way to identify and characterize the
bursting process as well as large organized structures of the turbulent boundary layer is through the measurement
of the frequency fluctuations of the
wall shear stress; (b) the need for carefully controlled boundary layer experiments over a wide range of Reynolds
numbers; (c) information regarding the
development of the boundary layer
(tripping devices, transition) from its
initial stage, since it is not clear what is
the necessary development length for a
turbulent boundary layer to be independent from its initial condition; (d)
the need for clearly defined initial conditions; (e) the need for new data on
unsteady separated turbulent boundary layers since each available data reports the dependence of the boundary
layer on a single parameter.
Central to these studies is the characterization (using direct measurement) of
the two-dimensional unsteady fluctuat-

ing skin friction and wall pressure fluctuations. Photonic skin friction sensors and
wall pressure sensors will be developed
and implemented to measure simultaneously, at the same spatial location, the
unsteady fluctuating streamwise and
spanwise skin friction and wall pressure.
The sensing approach is based on the
whispering gallery mode (WGM) of dielectric micro-cavities. In optics, the
whispering gallery mode phenomenon
(WGM) arise from total internal reflection of light at the internal surface of a
high index of refraction dielectric resonator embedded in a surrounding
medium of lower refractive index.
This work was done by Tindaro Ioppolo of Southern Methodist University for
the Army Research Office. For more information, download the Technical
Support Package (free white paper) at
www.aerodefensetech.com/tsp under
the DAQ, Testing & Sensors category.
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Aerospace & Defense Technology, April 2021

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Aerospace & Defense Technology - April 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Aerospace & Defense Technology - April 2021

Aerospace & Defense Technology - April 2021 - Intro
Aerospace & Defense Technology - April 2021 - Sponsor
Aerospace & Defense Technology - April 2021 - Cov1
Aerospace & Defense Technology - April 2021 - Cov2
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Aerospace & Defense Technology - April 2021 - Cov3
Aerospace & Defense Technology - April 2021 - Cov4
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