Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 20

UAV Transponders

Sagetech Mode S
ADS-BTransponders

A transponder implementation in a UAV, showcasing the dual antenna option. (Source: Sagetech Avionics)

manned drone operation. In the
United States, civilian and military pilots have equal rights to MOA airspace,
and both have equal responsibility to
see and avoid other air traffic. MOAs
serve as a warning, since military aircraft often fly at high speeds and are intentionally difficult to see. If an aircraft
will fly through a MOA, it should include a transponder.
For civil programs, the FAA offers rules
under 14 CFR 107 and 14 CFR 89 (the
new Remote ID rule) that define the rules
for aircraft flying at low (< 400 ft AGL) altitudes. Operations under Part 107 or Part
89 do not require a transponder. Some
unmanned aircraft fly under FAA Part 91
guidelines (or Part 135 for cargo aircraft)
in Class A-E airspace, or BVLOS above 400
ft AGL in Class G airspace. If this is the
case, in all situations a type certification
or FAA waiver will probably be required as
well as a transponder with ADS-B.
These airspace requirements are the
base set of requirements in the United
States. Outside of the US, UAV operators
should check with their own country's
air authority to ensure compliance with
their requirements.

What Transponder Functionality Will
My UAV Need?
Aviation transponders provide several
RF communications protocols, or
" Modes, " for communication. Select the
transponder type according to FAA and
DoD AIMS requirements for your mission. Additionally, ADS-B In and Out
functions can ideally be packaged together in an integrated transponder.

Whereas ADS-B Out is a requirement on
UAVs in manned airspace, Sagetech also
recommends equipping the aircraft
with integrated ADS-B In to provide the
additional situational awareness of
other aircraft operating in the vicinity
of the UAV.
Additional features to consider in
transponders include integrated pressure-based altitude encoder and, if a
UAV will be communicating with both
ground- and space-based ADS-B, dual
antennas. Finally, ensure a transponder
carries the necessary communication
protocols for a UAV, including the
newer Ethernet as well as the heritage
RS-232 and RS-422 for applicability
across an OEM's entire UAV portfolio.

Looking Ahead To Future
Requirements

one can do Part 107, but that's not
enough. We're seeing its limits now.
When we talk about integration, the future of expanded business opportunities
will be in repeatable, scalable, and economically viable Beyond Visual Line of
Sight operations; what we call BVLOS.
Routine BVLOS and operations over
people will need to meet the higher
standards of Part 91 and Part 135, where
type certification is required. "
Urban Air Mobility (UAM). As the industry considers the integration of UAM
aircraft into manned airspace, it is believed that transponders will be a core
technology enabler for future detect and
avoid (DAA) systems required on autonomous aircraft. At the Commercial
UAV Expo in September of 2020, Steve
Dickson, the FAA Administrator, explained, " Expanded drone operations
will also require detect and avoid capability. Manned aircraft have always operated
under the principle of see and avoid to remain clear of other manned aircraft, and
now in some cases to remain clear of unmanned aircraft as well. Thus far, unmanned aircraft can't do this. Reliable detect and avoid systems will enable us to
integrate more complex unmanned operations along with traditional manned operations. This will be a game changer. "

New Remote ID Requirements. The
FAA has recently published the final Remote ID rule via the Federal Register,
which will take effect in mid-Q1 2021.
This rule defines an " electronic license
plate " technology for aircraft broadcast
identification, and also specifies that
ADS-B will NOT be used for Remote ID.
UAS operating under Part 91 or Part
135 rules, with a flight plan and in communication with ATC, will not utilize
Remote ID and will need transponders,
ADS-B, and probably an appropriate
ACAS-based detect and avoid system in
order to achieve aircraft type certification. Steve Dickson, the FAA Administrator, gave an update at the Commercial UAV Expo on September 15, 2020:
" Now what's becoming clear is that any-

Unmanned aviation is exciting, with
emerging standards, new technologies,
and a new world of possibilities. For
every program, research and consideration are essential to determine if a program will require a transponder for enhanced visibility and, ultimately, safety
in the skies.
This article was written by Tom Furey,
CEO, Sagetech Corporation, (White
Salmon, WA). For more information, visit
http://info.hotims.com/79413-500.

www.aerodefensetech.com

Aerospace & Defense Technology, May 2021

20

Cov

ToC

Conclusion


http://info.hotims.com/79413-500 http://www.aerodefensetech.com http://www.abpi.net/ntbpdfclicks/l.php?202105ADTNAV

Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021

Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - Intro
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - Sponsor
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - Cov1
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - Cov2
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 1
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 2
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 3
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 4
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 5
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 6
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 7
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 8
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 9
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 10
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 11
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 12
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 13
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 14
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 15
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 16
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 17
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 18
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 19
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 20
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 21
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 22
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 23
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 24
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 25
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 26
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 27
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 28
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 29
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 30
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 31
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 32
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 33
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 34
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 35
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 36
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 37
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 38
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 39
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 40
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 41
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 42
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 43
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 44
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - Cov3
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - Cov4
https://www.nxtbook.com/smg/techbriefs/22ADT09
https://www.nxtbook.com/smg/techbriefs/22ADT08
https://www.nxtbook.com/smg/techbriefs/22ADT06
https://www.nxtbook.com/smg/techbriefs/22ADT05
https://www.nxtbook.com/smg/techbriefs/22ADT04
https://www.nxtbook.com/smg/techbriefs/22ADT02
https://www.nxtbook.com/smg/techbriefs/21ADT12
https://www.nxtbook.com/smg/techbriefs/21ADT10
https://www.nxtbook.com/smg/techbriefs/21ADT09
https://www.nxtbook.com/smg/techbriefs/21ADT08
https://www.nxtbook.com/smg/techbriefs/21ADT06
https://www.nxtbook.com/smg/techbriefs/21ADT05
https://www.nxtbook.com/smg/techbriefs/21ADT04
https://www.nxtbook.com/smg/techbriefs/21ADT02
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com