Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 6

UAV Propulsion Systems

Carpenter Technology to optimize magnetic induction, exhibit high permeability, and
lower core losses. The Hiperco 50
family offers tailored variations
for magnetic and mechanical
properties to fit an application's
requirements; for this model,
Hiperco ® 50A was chosen because of its superior magnetic
properties with the highest DC
permeability and lowest AC
losses to provide more efficiency
to the motor.
For the comparison, stator
cores of both silicon steel and
Hiperco 50A were utilized, each
Figure 3. The flight cycle used for motor modeling. The Drone motor ran for 60 minutes within a thermal envelope.
with a lamination thickness of
0.25 mm. Because the use of soft
magnetic materials in the stators
does not improve performance
enough to be cost-effective, both
Hiperco 50A
B( T ) 2.271
Silicon Steel
B( T ) 1.934
12%
models' rotor cores consisted of
silicon steel laminations, and
NdFeB magnets with 42 MGOe
were used as the permanent
magnets. The varying stator
Hiperco 50A
Silicon Steel
cores were interchanged, and
the motor was modeled between
the two materials. The motor
modeling was completed with a
flight profile to ensure the thermal boundary conditions of the
operation. The motor accelerMagnetic field, (A/m)
ated from 0 to 2500 rpm in five
Figure 4. Magnetic Induction shown in the magnetization curve.
seconds and was then run at a
constant speed for 60 minutes
(Figure 3). The 60-minute flight time
providing the endurance to cover more
Drone Design
provides a thermal envelope to the
distance.
The standard hardware components
motor operation, making the model a
The outer rotor permanent magnet
of common drones are highlighted in
realistic drone flight simulation.
synchronous motor (OR-PMSM) design
Figure 1. Of the three challenges preutilized in UAVs, as depicted in Figure
sented by drone designs - vision plat2, is useful for direct-drive applications.
forms, AI operation platforms, and
Key Properties to Look for in Soft
Carpenter Technology modeled the
propulsion systems - motor technology
Magnetic Materials
motor for a desired UAV flight cycle to
was identified as the system with the
Electrical resistivity: A measure of
compare performance using a drop-in
most viable opportunity for improvehow easily electrical current can pass
replacement material in the stator core
ment. Ever-improving camera technolthrough an alloy, the higher the resisthrough finite element analysis.
ogy and smart software platforms adtivity, the lower the eddy current losses
dress the vision and automation
in alternating magnetic field applicachallenges of drone design, so Carpentions. Reducing eddy current losses
Stator Core Modeling
ter Technology's material experts inveslowers wasted energy.
As its name suggests, silicon steel is
tigated the propulsion system of UAVs,
Permeability: A ratio of the magsteel with silicon added to increase
including the motor, propeller blades,
netic induction output (B) to the magelectrical resistance and reduce its hysand power management systems. Ennetic field strength input (H) that proteresis loss. Silicon steel is widely used
ergy-dense battery technology can optiduced the induction. The higher the
for most drone motor applications
mize performance for faster accelerapermeability, the better the magnetic
these days. The Hiperco ® family of
tion and longer flight times while
performance.
iron-cobalt alloys were developed by
2.5

Magnetic induction, ( T )

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

0

2500

5000

7500

10000

6

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Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021

Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - Intro
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - Sponsor
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - Cov1
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - Cov2
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 1
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 2
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - 3
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Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - Cov3
Aerospace & Defense Technology - May 2021 - Cov4
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