Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 17

Additive Manufacturing
Low Distortion Titanium
in Laser Powder Bed
Fusion Systems
U
sing
a
layer-by-layer
approach
during the additive
manufacturing (AM) process,
laser powder bed fusion
technology (LPBF) can produce finished
components directly from metal powder
alloys with minimal post-processing
required. Intricate designs can be realized
in the final part directly from printing,
allowing for greater freedom of design
than when using traditional
manufacturing technologies. In some
cases, this approach reduces the complexity
and number of parts in component
assemblies. The powder-to-part
manufacturing process, along with the
increased freedom of design, makes additive
manufacturing
a
disruptive
process
compared to traditional manufacturing
techniques.
Although LPBF AM machines have
increased in reliability over time, the
material offerings in metal powder
form have hardly changed. In most
cases, traditional cast and wrought
metal alloys are atomized into powder
and used to manufacture parts via
LPBF. While most powder alloys in AM
can achieve mechanical properties similar
to their cast and wrought counterparts,
some alloy systems, like titanium,
exhibit challenges. The most
widely available and most-used titanium
alloy in AM systems is Ti-6Al-4V
(Ti-64).
The unidirectional heat extraction
from the melting layer to the build
plate and the rapid solidification
rates inherent
to
the LPBF processes produce large
equiaxed grains in the direction of the
deposition in Ti-64 AM material. Due
to titanium's crystal structure and a
martensite-rich microstructure produced
during the LPBF process, Ti-64
stores high amounts of residual stress
in the as-printed condition. This builtup
stress can lead to premature build
failures on thin and high-aspect-ratio
parts, or even in thick parts with large
amounts of melt areas. Even after a
stress relief heat treatment step, these
residual stresses can lead to heavy disAerospace
& Defense Technology, December 2021 www.aerodefensetech.com
17
Intro
Cov
ToC
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Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021

Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Intro
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Sponsor
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Cov1
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Cov2
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 1
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 2
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 3
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 4
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Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 6
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Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 9
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Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 11
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 12
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Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 39
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 40
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Cov3
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Cov4
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