Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 18

Additive Manufacturing
Ti-64 part failures due to residule stress
Figure 1. Typical failure on Ti-64 tensile specimen which de-bonded from the plate during printing due to high residual
stress build up in the part. This can cause entire build failures in some cases due to the powder spreading mechanism
impacting the parts after they de-bond and causing high scrap rates.
tortion in parts after build
plate removal, creating both
quality issues and high rejection
rates (Figure 1). This
challenge limits the opportunity
for LPBF titanium
part applications, leaving
the users of the technology
searching for solutions to
this complex problem.
Unfortunately, there is
little one can do during the
LPBF process development
to minimize these residual
stresses in Ti-64 because
they mostly stem from the
alloy's chemical composition.
Titanium alloys are
composed of two crystallographic
phases in the material:
hexagonal alpha phase
and cubic beta phase. Ti-64
is considered an alpha-rich
alloy, and the alpha phase
is the main strengthening
0.04
0.05
0.06
Ti-64
a) Ti-64 cantilever deformation after wire EDM cut
-0.15
0.0012*
-0.0021*
-0.006*
-0.0122*
-0.0011*
-0.0172*
-0.0008*
-0.0016*
-0.0029*
-0.0028*
0.0055*
0.0085*
c) ATI Titan 23™ Brackets
d)
Ti 64 LPBF
ATI Titan 23™ LPBF
Figure 2. Results from quantification of distortion due to residual stresses in Ti-64 and ATI Titan 23TM LPBF printed material. a) Ti-64 cantilever beam printed in
LPBF system, cut using electrical discharge machining (EDM), distorted due to residual stresses, and used for calibrating distortion models, b) distortion of cantilever
beams printed using Ti-64 and ATI Titan 23TM showing 74% reduction of distortion in ATI Titan 23TM material, c) engine brackets printed in LPBF system in different
directions from ATI Titan 23TM to evaluate part distortion, and d) comparison of distortions of Ti-64 and ATI Titan 23TM brackets measured using a laser scanner
and showing ATI Titan 23TM parts exhibit 2 to 3 times less distortion than Ti-64 parts (cantilever and bracket geometries courtesy of AdditiveLab BVBA).
18
www.aerodefensetech.com
Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2021
Intro
Cov
ToC
+
-
A
µ
0.0017*
-0.0046*
0.0009*
-0.0001*
-0.0028*
0.0014*
-0.0083*
-0.0203*
0.0004*
0.0004*
0.0041*
-0.0208*
0.0046*
0.006*
0.0073*
0.0004*
0.0018*
0.0002*
0.0012*
b)
0.03
0.02
0.01
74% reduction
ATI Titan
23™
(units in inches)
-.011 -.007 -.004 0 .004 .007 .011 .015
-0.001*
-0.0027*
0.0043*
0.0013*
0.0032*
Distortion (in)
È
http://www.aerodefensetech.com http://info.hotims.com/79420-922

Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021

Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Intro
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Sponsor
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Cov1
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Cov2
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 1
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 2
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 3
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 4
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 5
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 6
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 7
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 8
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 9
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 10
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 11
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 12
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 13
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 14
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 15
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 16
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 17
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 18
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 19
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 20
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 21
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 22
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 23
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 24
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 25
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 26
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 27
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 28
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 29
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 30
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 31
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Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 33
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Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 35
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 36
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 37
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 38
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 39
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 40
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Cov3
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Cov4
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