Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 19

Additive Manufacturing
phase in Ti-64 via interface hardening
mechanisms.
Among other elements, aluminum
is responsible for the volume fraction
of alpha phase in titanium alloys, and
the relatively high amount of aluminum
in Ti-64 gives this alloy its
mechanical properties. Unfortunately,
aluminum also raises the martensite
start temperature of titanium alloys,
thereby making the alloy more prone
to phase changes being 'quenched in'
during LPBF rapid cooling and the
subsequent residual stress. Both the
alpha phase and the martensite in Ti64
are hexagonal close packed, which
is generally more anisotropic than
cubic crystal structures and can give
rise to orientation-based variation in
properties.
Recognizing this chemistry challenge,
the engineers at Allegheny Technologies
Incorporated (ATI) decided to
apply decades of titanium metallurgy
experience and expertise in additive
manufacturing to find a solution. Understanding
the connection between
micro structural evolution and the
LPBF process led the team to an investigation
of beta-rich titanium alloys.
In contrast to alpha-beta phase alloys
like Ti-64, beta-rich titanium alloys
have a ductile and " soft " phase,
which allows the titanium alloys to be
hot-workable and formable. Examples
of titanium alloys with more beta
phase include Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr and
Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al. These have shown
higher mechanical properties than Ti64
in cast and wrought products. They
are known to be more heat treatable
due to slower alpha precipitation kinetics
and lower martensite temperatures,
which lends to wider process
windows and adjustable mechanical
properties in AM. Compared to Ti-64,
some of these beta-rich alloys can
avoid martensitic reactions, lower
residual stresses, reduce part distortion,
and improve dimensional stability
and part yield of LPBF printed
parts.
To put this to the test, ATI selected its
Titan 23™ alloy, a beta-rich titanium
alloy produced in ingot metallurgy and
powder forms. It has shown superior
tensile, fatigue, and crack growth properties
in cast and wrought products
over Ti-64. The alloy is capable of thick
section hardenability up to a 10-inch
diameter via natural air cooling due to
its slow precipitation kinetics, which is
unheard of in titanium alloys. As a
global manufacturer specializing in specialty
materials for the most challenging
conditions, ATI provides a fully integrated
approach to metal additive
manufacturing, from powder metal to
the final finished part. Expertise in
Expand your
manufacturing with
3D printing services.
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Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021

Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Intro
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Sponsor
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Cov1
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Cov2
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 1
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 2
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 3
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 4
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 5
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 6
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 7
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 8
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 9
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 10
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 11
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 12
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 13
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 14
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 15
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 16
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Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 19
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Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 40
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Cov3
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Cov4
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