Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 22

RF & Microwave Technology
Drones
Finding the Controller
Drones are increasingly popular and
pose threats in several different ways.
You can use a drone to perform surveillance
of a potential target; for example,
to determine the layout of a building or
the schedule of people entering and
leaving. Drones equipped with guns, explosive
devices, or a chemical are extremely
dangerous. The simple presence
of a drone can cause panic by appearing
unexpectedly with unknown intentions,
particularly in crowded areas or
where drones are prohibited.
Multiple techniques exist for drone
detection. Using an acoustic method,
you can pick up the sound of the blades
spinning. With radar, it is possible to detect
something in the air at a specific location,
yet you cannot necessarily distinguish
a bird from a drone. With
image processing, you might be able to
identify a drone and tell that it is carrying
something. But you cannot discern
what the payload is unless you have a
very-high-resolution camera. Given the
location of a drone, it may be possible to
use a CCTV camera to get a better view.
22
Intro
Cov
Many techniques detect the drone
flying in the airwaves, providing varying
levels of intel. Yet a drone is an unmanned
aerial vehicle (UAV). It is the
human controller who instructs it to
carry out hostile activities. Distributed
sensor-based RF (or spectrum) monitoring
systems can successfully estimate
the location of the remote control.
The ideal way to detect the person on
the ground controlling the drone is with
an RF fingerprint or search. Radar cannot
perform such detection because of
too much interference on the ground.
Acoustic is not an option either, as the
controller makes no noise. Someone
with a camera might be able to pick up a
controller but will not know where to
point the camera and start looking, especially
if the person is in a crowd or
hidden from view. RF spectrum monitoring
is the only practical method for
identifying the controller.
This process involves establishing a
perimeter of sensors and using a geolocation
algorithm. You can then look
for the pattern or signature made by
www.aerodefensetech.com
ToC
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the remote control in the spectrum.
When you see it, you can trigger all the
sensors to do a geolocation measurement
on the pattern. This process is effective
even if the controller is moving,
as you can perform geolocations once
every second or once every couple of
seconds. You might not see a smooth
movement if the person moves quickly
but you can see the controller's trajectory.
At a walking pace, it is easy to detect
the signal and follow the person's
path. A controller's direction is determined
by performing geolocation
measurements every second and plotting
them on a map.
This spectrum monitoring approach
will not work if the controller does not
stay in contact with the drone. For example,
during the initial setup, it is possible
to program a drone with a destination,
a task to complete when it arrives,
and what to do after it completes that
task. In this scenario, you would have to
pick up the location of the controller at
that very instant when the operator
communicates the mission details to
the drone. The fallback option is the use
Aerospace & Defense Technology, December 2021
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Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021

Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Intro
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Sponsor
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Cov1
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Cov2
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 1
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 2
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 3
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 4
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 5
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 6
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 7
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 8
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 9
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 10
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 11
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 12
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 13
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Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 18
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 19
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 20
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 21
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 22
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Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 26
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 27
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 28
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 29
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 30
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 31
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Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 37
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 38
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 39
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - 40
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Cov3
Aerospace & Defense Technology - December 2021 - Cov4
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