Medical Design Briefs - June 2021 - 26

oxygen levels inside the muscles of live
sheep. Sonmezoglu points out that this
type of oxygen sensor differs from the
pulse oximeters that are used to measure
oxygen saturation in the blood.
While pulse oximeters measure the
proportion of hemoglobin in the blood
that is oxygenated, the new device is
able to directly measure the amount of
oxygen in tissue.
" One potential application of this de -
vice is to monitor organ transplants, be -
cause in the months after organ transplantation,
vascular complications can
occur, and these complications may lead
to graft dysfunction, " Sonmezoglu says.
" It could be used to measure tumor
hypoxia, as well, which can help doctors
guide cancer radiation therapy. "
Study co-authors Jeffrey Fineman and
Emin Maltepe, who both are pediatricians
at UCSF and members of the
Initiative for Pediatric Drug and Device
Development, became involved in the
work because of its potential for monitoring
fetal development and caring for
premature babies.
" In premature infants, for example, we
frequently need to give supplemental
oxygen but don't have a reliable tissue
readout of oxygen concentration, "
Maltepe says. " Further miniaturized versions
of this device could help us better
manage oxygen exposure in our preterm
infants in the intensive care nursery setting
and help minimize some of the negative
consequences of excessive oxygen
exposure, such as retinopathy of prematurity
or chronic lung disease. "
The technology could be further
improved, Sonmezoglu says, by housing
the sensor so that it could survive long
term in the body. Further miniaturizing
the device would also simplify the im -
plantation process, which currently re -
quires surgery. In addition, he says, the
optical platform in the sensor could be
readily adapted to measure other biochemistry
in the body.
" By just changing this platform that
we built for the oxygen sensor, you can
modify the device to measure, for example,
pH, reactive oxygen species, glucose,
or carbon dioxide, " Sonmezoglu
says. " Also, if we could modify the packaging
to make it smaller, you could
imagine being able to inject into the
body with a needle, or through laparoscopic
surgery, making the implantation
even easier. "
This work was supported by the Chan
Zuckerberg Biohub and by the National
Institutes of Health's Eunice Kennedy
Shriver National Institute of Child Health
and Human Development through grants
R44HD094414 and R01HD07245.
This article was written by Kara Manke,
UC Berkeley. For more information, visit
https://news.berkeley.edu.
Tiny Implantable Tool for Light-Sheet Imaging of Brain
Activity
The tool shows promise
for imaging brain activity
in 3D with high speed
and contrast.
SPIE
Bellingham, WA
Tools that allow neuroscientists to
record and quantify functional activity
within the living brain are in great
demand. Traditionally, researchers have
used techniques such as functional magnetic
resonance imaging, but this method
cannot record neural activity with high
spatial resolution or in moving subjects.
In recent years, a technology called opto -
genetics has shown considerable success in
recording neural activity from animals in
real time with single neuron resolution.
Optogenetic tools use light to control
neurons and record signals in tissues
that are genetically modified to express
light-sensitive and fluorescent proteins.
However, existing technologies for imaging
light signals from the brain have
drawbacks in their size, imaging speed, or
contrast that limit their applications in
experimental neuroscience.
A technology called light-sheet fluorescence
imaging shows promise for imaging brain
26
Cov
Optical microscope image of the implantable shanks (141 μm pitch) of a light sheet neural probe.
Light is emitted by nanophotonic gratings on the shanks to form light sheets. (Credit: Sacher et al.,
doi 10.1117/1.NPh.8.2.025003)
activity in 3D with high speed and contrast
(overcoming multiple limitations of other
imaging technologies). In this technique,
a thin sheet of laser light (light-sheet) is
directed through a brain tissue region of
interest, and fluorescent activity reporters
within the brain tissues respond by emitting
fluorescence signals that microscopes
can detect.
Scanning a light sheet in the tissue
enables high-speed, high-contrast, volumetric
imaging of the brain activity.
Currently, using light-sheet fluorescence
www.medicaldesignbriefs.com
ToC
brain imaging with nontransparent
organisms (like a mouse) is difficult
because of the size of the necessary
apparatus. To make experiments with
nontransparent animals and, in the
future, freely moving animals feasible,
researchers will first need to miniaturize
many of the components.
A key component for the miniaturization
is the light-sheet generator itself,
which needs to be inserted into the brain
and thus must be as small as possible to
avoid displacing too much brain tissue. In
Medical Design Briefs, June 2021
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Medical Design Briefs - June 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Medical Design Briefs - June 2021

Medical Design Briefs - June 2021 - Intro
Medical Design Briefs - June 2021 - Cov4
Medical Design Briefs - June 2021 - Cov1a
Medical Design Briefs - June 2021 - Cov1b
Medical Design Briefs - June 2021 - Cov1
Medical Design Briefs - June 2021 - Cov2
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Medical Design Briefs - June 2021 - Cov3
Medical Design Briefs - June 2021 - CovIV
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