Medical Design Briefs - August 2021 - 66

GlobAl
INNOVATIONS
Nanosensor-Based Device Enables Early Detection of Sudden
Cardiac Death
Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, Russia
R
eseachers at Tomsk Polytechnic
University have developed a
nanosensor-based hardware and
software complex for measurement of
cardiac micropotential energies without
filtering and averaging out cardiac cycles
in real time. The device allows registering
early abnormalities in the function of
cardiac muscle cells, which otherwise can
be recorded only during open-heart surgery
or by inserting an electrode in a cardiac
cavity through a vein. Such changes
can lead to sudden cardiac death (SCD).
Currently, there are no alternatives to
the Tomsk device for a number of key
characteristics in Russia and the world.
The research findings of four-year measurement
of cardiac micropotential energies
using this device and the participation
of a volunteer are published in the
journal Measurement. The core principles
of its operation are similar to ECG, however,
they changed sensors: they made
nanosensors instead of conventional
sensors and managed to measure signals
of nanovoltage and microvoltage layers
without filtering and averaging-out in
broadband. The use of nanosensors led
to the necessity to apply original circuit
solutions, write individual software.
The heart permanently generates electrical
signals. These electrical signals
cause cardiac muscle contraction and
help the heart to function as a pump.
Based on the form and duration of these
pulses, it is possible to assess the condition
of the heart. The main method of detection
of electrical pulses, that is used everywhere,
is electrocardiography (ECG).
Nevertheless, ECG modern devices detect
already critical changes in the function of
the myocardium, cardiac muscle.
" Therefore, there is much concern
about the creation of devices for early
detection of these disorders, when it is still
possible to restore cell function using
medication and without surgical intervention, "
says Diana Avdeeva, head of the
TPU Laboratory for Medical Engi neering,
a research supervisor of the project. "
66
Intro
Cov
network interference and noises, which
are usually used in conventional ECG
and significantly distort micropotentials, "
she says.
The nanosensor-based device allows registering
early abnormalities in the function of cardiac
muscle cells, which otherwise can be recorded
only during open-heart surgery or by inserting
an electrode in a cardiac cavity through a vein.
(Credit: Tomsk Polytechnic University)
Cardiac micropotential energies, electrical
pulses emitted by separate cells, must
be recorded. " Here, there is a question of
how to implement it noninvasive. With
the participation of our colleagues, doctors,
have developed a hardware and software
complex. Ultimately, we gained a
tremendous difference in sensitivity. "
The complex consists of a set of sensors,
a tiny key device for recording
incoming signals from sensors, and software
for data processing. The sensors are
fixed on a human's chest using a conventional
conducting gel. The monitoring
procedure takes about 20 minutes.
Conventional ECG machines operate on
frequencies from 0.05 to 150 Hz, while
the device of the Tomsk scientists operates
on frequencies to 10,000 Hz.
" Silver chloride electrodes are usually
used for recording ECG of high quality.
Our sensors are also silver chloride electrodes;
however, we used silver nano -
particles. There are up to 16 thin plates
from porous ceramics in every sensor.
Silver nanoparticles are placed in these
pores, " Avdeeva says. " There are millions
of particles in one sensor, where every
particle is a silver chloride electrode
capable to enhance an electric field of
the heart. Silver and gold nanoparticles
are capable to enhance an electromagnetic
field: visible light by 10,000 folds
and infrared radiation by 20-fold. We
also refused to use filters for rejection
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The published article represents the
monitoring data of one volunteer's heart
function. He took part in research for four
years and was monitored every 7-10 days.
" At the beginning of our research, we
recorded clear violations of activity of cardiac
muscle cells. His attending physician
recommended surgery; he gained an
inserted stent at the Cardiology Research
Institute. Then, he continued to take part
in the research and the device recorded
the further gradual restoration of cardiac
function, " the scientist notes.
Previously, the project received sponsorship
of the Technology Platform " Medicine
of the Future " and the federal targeted
program. The complex was created in partnership
with experts of the Cardiology
Research Institute of the Tomsk National
Research Medical Center of the Russian
Academy of Sciences. The industrial partner
was the Scientific Production
Association Ekran, a Moscow enterprise.
" A task to create a sensitive, tiny, and
affordable complex was set up so that in
the long run, outpatient clinics and
patients at home could use it. Moreover,
the developed methods and devices can
be used not only in cardiology but in other
fields as well, " says Mikhail Yuzhakov,
engineer of the TPU Laboratory for
Medical Engineering, a participant of the
research team.
" The fields of any electrophysiological
research, such as electroencephalography,
electromyography and so on are
promising. Of course, before applying it
to cardiology, we have to pass some essential
stages. These are the collection of the
required array of statistics, certification of
the complex for medical use. All these
stages require sponsorship, we are
engaged in searching for partners and
supporting programs. "
For more information, visit https://news.
tpu.ru.
Medical Design Briefs, August 2021
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Medical Design Briefs - August 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Medical Design Briefs - August 2021

Medical Design Briefs - August 2021 - Intro
Medical Design Briefs - August 2021 - Cov4
Medical Design Briefs - August 2021 - Cov1a
Medical Design Briefs - August 2021 - Cov1b
Medical Design Briefs - August 2021 - Cov1
Medical Design Briefs - August 2021 - Cov2
Medical Design Briefs - August 2021 - 1
Medical Design Briefs - August 2021 - 2
Medical Design Briefs - August 2021 - 3
Medical Design Briefs - August 2021 - 4
Medical Design Briefs - August 2021 - 5
Medical Design Briefs - August 2021 - 6
Medical Design Briefs - August 2021 - 7
Medical Design Briefs - August 2021 - 8
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Medical Design Briefs - August 2021 - Cov3
Medical Design Briefs - August 2021 - Cov4
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