Tech Briefs Magazine - June 2022 - Sensor-10

TECHNOLOGY LEADERS Sensors
system's capability to support.
Current sensors in advanced
charging systems are deployed
in each of the converter circuit
feedback control-loop
functions that regulate
the
performance, efficiency, and
thermal linearity of the power
systems in inverters.
In the case of high energy-density
cells using lithium
iron phosphate (LFP) or lithium-titanate
(LTO), coulomb
counting can determine battery
State of Charge (SoC),
State of Health (SoH), and
State of Function (SoF). Only
by closely monitoring those,
can one confirm functionality
and capacity.
Power Quality
Figure 4. Higher charging power means shorter charging times. (Image: ACEINNA)
protection except to prevent catastrophic
failure in extreme situations. Intelligent
fault management can also better
address issues like user error and minor
damage to cables and connectors.
High speed is vital for closed loop
control of the fast switching currents
found in DC-DC switching applications.
The rule of thumb for any type of
control loop is that the sensor should
respond 10x faster than the switching
speed of the transistors. For context, if
transistors are switching at 120 kHz, you
need about 1.2 MHz bandwidth - and
the switching speed is likely to go higher
in coming years.
Of course, fast response is absolutely
critical for overcurrent trip-out sensing.
Another issue is that EV manufacturers
are addressing advanced charging
demands by increasing the working
voltage, which can currently be as high
as 800V. These higher-voltage systems
provide the same amount of power with
less current, resulting in lighter cables
and a lower overall vehicle weight. If an
EV has an 800-volt charging architecture
and the charging station can handle
high power levels, charging time drops
significantly. For example, while 400volt
EVs can be charged at around 150
kW, an 800-volt charger can recharge
a battery pack at a rate of 350 kW. The
ACEINNA AMR-based integrated cur10
rent
sensor has a working rating of 1097
volts rms.
Although household systems may never
reach the power levels of a service-station
charger, they will be deployed at
the highest possible power densities
cost-effectively possible. These next-generation
EV chargers need advanced current
measurement to provide early fault
detection and real-time performance
information. Home systems must constantly
watch for out-of-range current
conditions or other loss of performance,
to predict and address potential thermal
and performance issues.
Managing risk
The dangerous fact is that many
next-generation chargers are being driven
at the edges of their performance
envelope. This demands advanced current
measurement to provide early fault
detection and real-time performance information.
EV battery-charging systems
must have indication of an out-of-range
current condition, or an over-current
condition, or other loss of performance,
to predict and address potentially dangerous
issues.
Dangers to power electronics' performance,
and thereby system thermal issues,
range from ground faults and short-circuits
to operating at extreme power levels
and at loading conditions beyond the
www.techbriefs.com
Power quality is essential
for efficient operation in advanced
EV chargers, and the
power factor is a big part of it.
Power Factor is the ratio of the true
power of a load to the apparent power
- a measure of the degree to which the
voltage waveform and the current waveform
are in phase with one another. So,
it is a measure of how effectively you are
using electricity and for optimum performance,
it should as close to 1 as possible.
For example, a load with a power
factor of 0.90 means that only 90% of
the power is being used effectively to do
work. By measuring current and voltage
at the same time, you can determine the
phase difference and modulate the transistors
to correct for it. Power factor correction
(PFC) reduces the load on the
electrical distribution system, increases
energy efficiency and reduces electricity
costs. It also decreases the likelihood of
instability and failure of equipment.
The Value of AMR Current Sensing
While AMR current sensing can be useful
in a range of industrial power and control
applications, its high accuracy and
high speed make it ideal for the rapidly
expanding EV charging system market.
This article was written by Teoman Ustun,
VP Automotive Business Unit, ACEINNA,
Inc. For more information, contact Mr. Ustun
at tustun@aceinna.com or visit http://info.
hotims.com/82322-162.
Sensor Technology, June 2022
ST Aceinna Tech Leaders Feature 0622_1.indd 10
Cov
ToC
5/18/22 2:55 PM
http://info.hotims.com/82322-162 http://www.techbriefs.com http://info.hotims.com/82322-850

Tech Briefs Magazine - June 2022

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