Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 5

BA K I N G U P DAT E :

Bread Softness
SPECIAL EDITION
Practical technology from Lallemand
Baking supplying bakers yeast to bakers
all around the globe

IMPROVING CRUMB SOFTNESS

B

read staling has a significant economic impact on the baking industry because of the costs for unsalable
product, thrift store discounts, more-frequent distribution, and multipurpose production lines. Bakers can
improve bread softness and minimize bread staling by optimizing their ingredients, processes, and packaging and by using antistaling agents.
Ingredients and process modifications that improve the softness of the freshly baked bread will also
improve the quality of the bread after storage. Ingredients that affect loaf volume and crumb structure, such
as fat, water, oxidants, enzymes, gluten, flour, etc., also affect crumb softness. This can be explained from a
larger loaf volume resulting in a less dense and therefore softer breadcrumb and from the finer, more regular
crumb structure as a result of an optimally developed and functional gluten structure.
A well-developed gluten structure contributes to better crumb resilience and to better water-retaining
capacity, resulting in a softer, less crumbly crumb. Therefore, process conditions like mixing and fermentation
that affect crumb structure will affect crumb softness. Ingredients and process conditions that increase the
moisture content of the breadcrumb (sugar, fibers, water absorption, baking conditions) will also contribute
to softness. For this reason it is important to check the oven conditions to avoid excessive moisture loss
during baking.
Packaging that prevents moisture loss will keep the crumb softer. Storage temperature is also important
because bread stales faster at low [32° to 50°F (0° to 10°C)] temperatures. The more-rapid firming of bread
in the winter can be minimized by storing the bread in a warm area prior to shipment and also by preheating
the interior of delivery trucks prior to loading.
Emulsifiers (surfactants) are used as antistaling agents, mostly to improve initial crumb softness.
They work by complexing with gelatinizing starch, so the best choices are those with a high ACI (Amylose
Complexing Index) such as mono- and diglycerides, distilled monoglycerides, polysorbates, and sodium
stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL).
Enzymes act on the dough during mixing and proofing to provide uniform crumb structure, increase
volume, and improve initial softness. They also act during baking to slow the rate of firming during storage.
Timing is critical, because the gluten and starch network in the dough needs to be strong enough to retain
the gas produced during proofing, but the same gluten and starch network needs to be weak enough after
baking to remain soft.
The primary enzymes used are amylases that break down starch. Proteases that break down gluten during

STARCH-DEGRADING
ENZYMES
Enzymes can be classified by the reactions they
catalyze, the substrates they act on, the products
they form, their thermal stability, or their source.
One common system is the IUB or E.C. classification, which uses a combination of criteria in a tiered
approach.
Amylases are classified as E.C. 3.2.1: E.C. 3 for
"Hydrolases," E.C. 3.2 for "Hydrolases which are
glucosidases," E.C. 3.2.1 for "Glucosidases which
hydrolyze O-glycosyl compounds." Amylases can
be further classified on the basis of the anomeric
form of their reaction product. D-glucose has two

The wheat flour
amylase that degrades
amylose into maltose
and amylopectin into
a mixture of maltose
and a beta-limit dextrin
is the best known
example of a betaamylase (E.C. 3.2.1.2).

- Continued

AMYLASE CHARACTERISTICS
ThermoStability

Action
Pattern

Crumb
Softness

Crumb
Resilience

Fungal D-amylase
Aspergillus oryzae

low

endo

+

++

Fungal glucoamylase
Aspergillus niger

low

exo

Fungal D-amylase
Aspergillus niger

interm.

endo

++

++
(at low pH)

Cereal D-amylase
Malted wheat/barley

interm.

endo

++

++ (protease
side activity)

Cereal E-amylase
Wheat flour

low

exo
(maltogenic)

Bacterial D-amylase
Bacillus subtilis

high

endo

++++

+

Bacterial D-amylase
Bacillus megaterium

interm.

endo

+++

++

Bacterial amylase
Pseudomonas saccharophilia

interm.

exo
(maltotetragenic)

+++

++++

Bacterial amylase
Geobacillus stearothermophilus

interm.

exo
(maltogenic)

++++

++++

Enzyme/Source

++

++++

forms or anomers (alpha- and beta-) depending on
the orientation of the H and OH groups around its
first carbon atom. The amylose fraction of starch is
made up of glucose units connected by alpha-1,4
linkages while the amylopectin fraction also
contains alpha-1,6 linkages at its branch points.
Amylases producing hydrolysis products that
retain their alpha- configuration are classified as
alpha-amylases. Amylases that invert their
hydrolysis products to the beta- form are
classified as beta-amylases. The wheat flour
amylase that degrades amylose into maltose and
amylopectin into a mixture of maltose and a
beta-limit dextrin is the best known example of a
beta-amylase (E.C. 3.2.1.2).
Starch-degrading enzymes can also be classified
based on their action pattern as exo-acting,
endo-acting, or debranching. Exo-acting, or
saccharifying, amylases degrade amylose and
amylopectin by successive removal of sugar units
from the nonreducing chain ends. Endoacting, or
liquefying, amylases degrade amylose and amylopectin by randomly cleaving alpha-1,4 linkages
- Continued



Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020

Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 1
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 1
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 2
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 3
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 4
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 5
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Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 7
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Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 10
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Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 14
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Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 16
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 17
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 18
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 19
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 20
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 21
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 22
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 23
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Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 27
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 28
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 29
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 30
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 31
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 32
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 33
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 34
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 35
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 36
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 37
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 38
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 39
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 40
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 41
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 42
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 43
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 44
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 45
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 46
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 47
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 48
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2020_05_19
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2020_05_05
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2020_04_21
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2020_04_07
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2020_03_24
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2020_03_10
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2020_02_25
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2020_02_11
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2020_01_28
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2020_01_14
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2019_12_31
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2019_12_17
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2019_12_03
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https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2019_08_27
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2019_08_13
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2019_07_30
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2019_07_16
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2019_07_02
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2019_06_18
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2019_06_04
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2019_05_21
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2019_05_07
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2019_04_23
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2019_04_09
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2019_03_26
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2019_03_12
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2019_02_26
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2019_02_12
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2019_01_29
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2019_01_15
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2019_01_01
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_12_18
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_12_04
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_11_20
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_11_06
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_10_23
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_10_09
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_09_25
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_09_11
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_08_24
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_08_14
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_07_31
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_07_17
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_07_03
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_06_19
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_06_05
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_05_22
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_05_08
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_04_24
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_04_10
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_03_27
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https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2018_01_16
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2018_01_02
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https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_12_05
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_11_21
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_11_07
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_10_24
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_10_10
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_09_26
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_09_12
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_08_29
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_08_15
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_07_18
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_07_04
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_06_20
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_06_06
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_05_23
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_05_09
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_04_25
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_04_11
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_03_28
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_03_14
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_02_28
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_02_14
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_01_31
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_01_17
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2017_01_03
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2016_12_20
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2016_12_06
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2016_11_22
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2016_11_08
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2016_10_25
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2016_10_11
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2016_09_27
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2016_09_13
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2016_08_30
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2016_08_16
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2016_08_02
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https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2015_09_01
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https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2015_08_04
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https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2015_07_07
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2015_06_23
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2015_06_09
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2015_05_26
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2015_05_12
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2015_04_28
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2015_04_014
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2015_03_31
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2015_03_17
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/mbn/2015_03__03
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2015_02_17
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2015_02_03
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2015_01_20
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2015_01_06
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https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2014_12_09
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https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2014_11_11
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2014_10_28
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https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2014_08_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2014_07_22
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2014_07_08
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2014_06_24
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2014_06_10
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https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2014_05_13
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2014_04_29
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2014_04_15
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2014_04_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2014_03_18
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2014_03_04
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2014_02_18
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2014_02_04
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2014_01_21
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2014_01_07
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_12_24
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_12_10
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_11_26
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_11_12
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https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_10_15
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_10_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_09_17
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_09_03
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_08_20
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_08-06
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_07_23
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_07_09
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_06_25
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_06_11
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_05_28
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_05_14
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_04_30
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_04_16
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_04_02
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_03_19
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_03_05
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_02_19
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_02_05
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_01_22
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2013_01_08
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_12_25
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_12_11
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_11_27
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_11_13
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_10_30
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_10_16
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_10_02
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_09_18
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_09_04
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_08_21
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_08_07
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_07_24
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_07_10
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_06_26
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_06_12
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_05_29
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_05_15
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_05_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_04_17
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_04_03
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_03_20
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_03_06
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_02_21
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_02_07
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_01_24
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2012_01_10
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2011_12_27
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2011_12_13
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2011_11_29
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2011_11_15
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2011_11_01
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2011_10_18
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2011_10_04
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2011_09_20
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2011_09_06
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2011_08_23
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2011_08_09
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2011_07_26
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2011_07_12
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2011_06_28
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2011_06_14
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2011_05_31
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2011_05_17
https://www.nxtbook.com/sosland/mbn/2011_05_03
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