Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 6

BA K I NG U P DAT E: Bread Softness

SPECIAL EDITION

Improving Crumb Softness (Continued)

Starch-degrading Enzymes (Continued)

Enzymes act on the dough during
baking can also be used, but they are more difficult
to control and can have a negative effect on crumb
mixing and proofing to provide
texture. The thermostability and action pattern of
amylases are important for their performance.
uniform crumb structure, increase
Thermostability is crucial because the bulk of the
starch in a dough is native starch that can only be mod- volume, and improve initial softness.
ified by enzymes after gelatinization, which occurs
during baking at temperatures above 150°F (65°C).
Action pattern is important because it affects the
relative effect of the enzyme on softness, resilience,
and moistness/gumminess. Endo-acting amylases
randomly break down branched starch, which helps
prevent it from firming but can also reduce resilience
and cause gumminess. Exo-acting amylases break
down branched starch from the ends, preventing it
from firming while maintaining resilience.
Malt and fungal amylases act on the starch in the
dough to delay crust set in the oven. This allows more "oven spring" and increases volume, which helps
initial softness. They have an endo action pattern but low thermostability so are inactivated early in the baking
process and have little antistaling effect.
Enzymes with high t hermostability, such as classical bacterial amylase, improve crumb softness considerably, but tend to give the "wrong" kind of softness, resulting in a gummy bread crumb lacking resilience.
So, the action of classical bacterial amylase must be very well controlled to give the right balance of crumb
softness and crumb resilience. In practice this is difficult to achieve, because the classical bacterial amylase
survives the baking process and is still active in the baked bread. This explains why the use of the classical
bacterial amylase as a crumb softener has remained very limited.
Better control is possible with newer types of fungal and bacterial amylases characterized by a so-called
intermediate thermostability like the Bacillus megaterium amylase and the Aspergillus niger acid amylase.
Although these enzymes, which are fully inactivated during baking, will give more consistent results, they still
tend to produce a bread crumb lacking resilience.
Softer bread crumb with no loss of resilience requires an amylase with both intermediate thermostability
and an exo-acting (maltogenic) action pattern. This explains the superior performance of Geobacillus stearothermophilus amylase as a crumb softener that produces softer yet resilient bread crumb without gumminess
even at higher dosages.

throughout the chains. Debranching enzymes
degrade amylopectin by cleaving the alpha-1,6
linkages at the branch points. Beta-amylases
and glucoamylases (E.C. 3.2.1.3) remove
maltose and glucose units, respectively, from
starch so are classified as exo-amylases. Alpha-amylases (E.C. 3.2.1.1) generally degrade
starch into dextrins so most are classified as
endo-amylases. Pullulanases (E.C. 3.2.1.41)
and isoamylases (E.C. 3.2.1.68) are classified as
debranching enzymes.
Yet another way of classifying enzymes is by
thermostability, or the temperature and conditions at which they are inactivated. Enzymes
with the same action pattern can differ greatly
in thermostability depending on their source.
For baking applications, the critical temperature range is from about 150° to 175°F (65° to
80°C), where starch is gelatinized and subject
to hydrolysis. Starchdegrading enzymes that
are inactivated quickly at 140°F (60°C) can
be classified as low thermostability, those
that remain active above 175°F (80°C) can be
classified as high thermostability, and those
in-between can be classified as intermediate
thermostability.
When comparing the effect of various amylolytic enzymes on crumb softness and crumb
resilience (see table), it becomes apparent
that action pattern and thermostability are the
most important characteristics. The maltogenic
amylase from Bacillus stearothermophilus
outperforms the other amylases as a crumb softening agent giving a superior crumb softening
effect without causing gumminess or a lack of
crumb resilience. This enzyme also has the most
desirable combination of exo-action pattern
and intermediate thermostability.

LALLEMAND CRUMB SOFTENERS
LALLEMAND Baking Solutions was a pioneer in the use of
enzymes to improve crumb softness and today offers a full
range of high-performance enzymes and dough conditioners:
* Essential® enzyme systems improve initial softness
by helping to optimize crumb texture, volume, and
processing tolerance.
* The Essential® ER range replaces emulsifiers like
DATEM and SSL while reducing cost.
* The Essential® SOFT range extends shelf life by
maintaining softness and resilience.
* The Essential® CL range combines oxidizer and
emulsifier replacement with shelf-life extension to
provide all-in-one clean label solutions.
Formulations are available for all types of dough systems
and for a variety of baked goods applications, including:
* Bread
* Buns and rolls
* Pita and flat breads
* Bagels
* Cakes
* Yeast-raised and cake donuts
Lallemand products are backed by a skilled technical
support staff that will be happy to assist you in
determining which product best suits your process and
application.

BA KIN G UP DAT E
Lallemand Baking Update is produced by
Lallemand to provide bakers with a source
of practical information and technology for
solving problems. If you would like to be on
our mailing list to receive future copies, or
if you have questions or comments, please
contact us at:
LALLEMAND Inc. | 1620 Préfontaine
Montréal | QC | H1W 2N8
CANADA
tel: (800) 840-4047 | (514) 522-2133
fax: (514) 255-6861
email: baking@lallemand.com
www.lallemandbaking.com
To the best of our knowledge, the information in Lallemand Baking
Update is true and accurate. However, any recommendations or
suggestions are made without warranty or guarantee.


http://www.lallemandbaking.com

Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020

Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 1
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 1
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 2
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 3
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 4
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 5
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 6
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 7
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 8
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 9
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 10
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 11
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 12
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 13
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 14
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 15
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 16
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 17
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 18
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 19
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 20
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 21
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 22
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 23
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 24
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 25
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 26
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 27
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 28
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 29
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 30
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 31
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 32
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 33
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 34
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 35
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 36
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 37
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 38
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Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 40
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 41
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 42
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 43
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 44
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 45
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 46
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 47
Milling & Baking News - May 19, 2020 - 48
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http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_12_04
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_11_20
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_11_06
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_10_23
http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_10_09
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http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_09_11
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http://digitalmbn.bakingbusiness.com/sosland/mbn/2018_07_03
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