Culinology - September 2017 - 31

E X PE RT voices

'clean meat'
for resources between the world's affluent
and the world's poor, Dr. Specht said.
Health concerns associated with animal
agriculture have been on the rise because of
bacterial resistance to antibiotics, and animal
welfare has become a greater concern in recent years. For example, restricting the movement of animals to make meat production
more efficient makes economic sense but
has raised concern among the public.
Dr. Specht described issues of meat production as a "thermodynamic problem."
"Most of an animal's energy goes to metabolic functions, mechanical, respiration etc.,
not to producing meat," she said. "The question is whether we can remove the animal
from the picture and do this more efficiently."

Starting at the cellular level
Clean meat is meat produced using cell
cultures, rather than animal slaughter. The
process begins with primary cells taken from
a living or recently slaughtered animal. The
cells are then cultured and multiply, and are
then directed to become the constituent parts
of meat - myocytes (muscle), adipocytes
(fat) and a handful of other materials such as
fibroblasts and chondrocytes (connective tissue) to provide structural integrity.

"These relative cell types are the same
whether we are talking about a steak or fish
or something like chicken breast," Dr. Specht
said. "The ratios are different. The structural
arrangement of the cell types are different.
And of course the species of origin are different, but what we're talking about here is the
ability to grow these cells in a platform portable to many different products and species
of animals."
The dream of clean meat is not new, Dr.
Specht said, citing Winston Churchill in 1931
predicting that within 50 years "we shall escape the absurdity of growing a whole chicken in order to eat the breast or wing."
The technology advanced slower than Mr.
Churchill predicted but has progressed rapidly over the last 15 years, especially the most
recent five, thanks to gains in the biomedical
field, Dr. Specht said.
"Technology came from cell therapy,
where we grew cell cultures for therapy; gene
therapy and the regenerative medicine field,"
she said.

Is disruption on the horizon?
In addition to numerous active business
start-ups in the clean meat field Dr. Specht
cited (including Memphis Meats, Modern

"Our products do not spoil at a
normal rate... They last much longer
in storage. Upward of weeks."
Eric Schulze, Ph.D., senior scientist, Memphis Meats, Inc.
SEPTEMBER 2017 | Culinolog y |

31



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Culinology - September 2017

Culinology - September 2017
Table of Contents
President's Letter - Big ideas in Culinology
Emerging Trends - Taking sausage to the next level
Flavor Trends - Condiment creations - What's next?
Ingredient Trends - The seeds of beverage innovation
Campbell moves beyond pea soup
A broader market for plant protein
Member Profile - Those who can, teach Culinology
Sage advice from the professor
Expert Voices - Futuristic 'clean meat'
Food safety - High-pressure processing evolves
Industry News
Petits Fours
News Bites
Ad Index
Culinology - September 2017 - Table of Contents
Culinology - September 2017 - 2
Culinology - September 2017 - 3
Culinology - September 2017 - President's Letter - Big ideas in Culinology
Culinology - September 2017 - 5
Culinology - September 2017 - Emerging Trends - Taking sausage to the next level
Culinology - September 2017 - 7
Culinology - September 2017 - 8
Culinology - September 2017 - 9
Culinology - September 2017 - Flavor Trends - Condiment creations - What's next?
Culinology - September 2017 - 11
Culinology - September 2017 - 12
Culinology - September 2017 - 13
Culinology - September 2017 - 14
Culinology - September 2017 - 15
Culinology - September 2017 - 16
Culinology - September 2017 - 17
Culinology - September 2017 - Ingredient Trends - The seeds of beverage innovation
Culinology - September 2017 - 19
Culinology - September 2017 - Campbell moves beyond pea soup
Culinology - September 2017 - 21
Culinology - September 2017 - A broader market for plant protein
Culinology - September 2017 - 23
Culinology - September 2017 - Member Profile - Those who can, teach Culinology
Culinology - September 2017 - 25
Culinology - September 2017 - 26
Culinology - September 2017 - 27
Culinology - September 2017 - Sage advice from the professor
Culinology - September 2017 - 29
Culinology - September 2017 - Expert Voices - Futuristic 'clean meat'
Culinology - September 2017 - 31
Culinology - September 2017 - 32
Culinology - September 2017 - 33
Culinology - September 2017 - 34
Culinology - September 2017 - 35
Culinology - September 2017 - 36
Culinology - September 2017 - Food safety - High-pressure processing evolves
Culinology - September 2017 - 38
Culinology - September 2017 - 39
Culinology - September 2017 - Industry News
Culinology - September 2017 - 41
Culinology - September 2017 - 42
Culinology - September 2017 - 43
Culinology - September 2017 - 44
Culinology - September 2017 - 45
Culinology - September 2017 - Petits Fours
Culinology - September 2017 - 47
Culinology - September 2017 - 48
Culinology - September 2017 - News Bites
Culinology - September 2017 - Ad Index
Culinology - September 2017 - 51
Culinology - September 2017 - 52
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