ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 25

VOICES & VIEWS * Emulsifier The type of emulsifier (non-ionic vs. anionic), the HLB (Hydrophilic Lipophilic Balance) of the emulsifier, and the surface activity (i.e. surface tension-lowering capacity) of the emulsifier are key characteristics that must be understood. Over the years, additive suppliers developed emulsifiers that are specifically designed to be "low-foaming." They accomplish this by manipulating the chemical structure of the emulsifier (e.g. adding branching, adjusting the number of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide groups, adjusting the position of the polar (hydrophilic) portion of the emulsion within the molecule). tendency is higher in soft water (of about 100 ppm total hardness or less) than it is in hard water. The divalent ions in hard water tend to "salt-out" anionic emulsifiers present in the formulation, thereby rendering them inactive, so their contribution to foam stabilization is minimized. However, hard water can also reduce their effectiveness as emulsion stabilizers. Therefore, a balance must be reached in terms of water hardness so that the water is not so soft that it promotes foaming, but at the same time not so hard that it destabilizes the emulsion. The MWF supplier should work with the end-user to suggest an MWF package that works optimally for the existing water hardness level. * Impact of other potentially surface-active components in the formulation MWF formulations can be made up of 20 or more components, and emulsifiers and co-emulsifiers are often not the only surface-active moieties in the formulation. Corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear additives, extreme pressure additives and lubricity additives may sometimes have some surface activity that could contribute to the stabilization of foam in MWFs. It is also important to consider any synergistic effects that may exist between components, especially emulsifiers and co-emulsifiers that might unexpectedly enhance foam in the MWF system. For example, it has been shown in some systems that when the emulsifier and co-emulsifier both have HLB values that are close to one another, the effect on foam generation is especially high relative to when the HLB values are not both in that same range. * Antifoam/Defoamer usage MWFs sometimes have an antifoam incorporated to assist in controlling foam, and end-users also are able to add defoamer at their site tankside as a further measure to control foam. Since the antifoam is typically incorporated in the MWF package, it is important to make sure that the antifoam selected is compatible with the MWF package and that it will not fall out of solution during transport or storage. The important thing to consider with defoamers, which are added during the MWF usage, is that in some cases the addition of too much defoamer can actually lead to more foam being generated. Therefore, care must be taken not to overcharge defoamer or do too many "top-offs" with defoamer. * MWF concentration In order to have optimal performance of the MWF, it is important to use the fluid in the appropriate concentration range. As one might expect, too much concentrate can exacerbate foaming because of the excess of emulsifier and other surface-active components available. MWFs are often used in the concentration range of approximately 5 to 10 percent. Anything higher than that has a greater chance of leading to foaming issues. Each of the factors discussed above must be delicately balanced when one is trying to ensure optimized performance of an MWF with minimal foaming. Controlling foam without sacrificing the integrity of an MWF formulation is not a small task. MWF suppliers and additive suppliers are diligently working to develop novel systems to address this issue. Ford is senior surface scientist, lubricants at Ingevity. She may be reached at 843-746-8341 or monica.ford@ingevity.com. * Water hardness The quality of the water that is being used for a given metalworking application can play a crucial role in foam problems encountered during the use of MWFs. Foaming Compoundings September 2016 * 25 * Vol. 66 No. 9

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ILMA Compoundings September 2016

FROM THE CEO
BOARD BRIEF
NOTES FROM MSCI
THE HEART OF ILMA
THE ARGUS ANALYSIS
VOICES & VIEWS
INTERNATIONAL INSIGHT
SPEAKER SPOTLIGHT
FAMILY BUSINESS
FINANCIAL FREEDOM
RULES & REGS
POWER PLAY
LEGAL EASE
THE WHITE PAPER
ADVERTISERS INDEX
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 1
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 2
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 3
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 4
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - FROM THE CEO
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 6
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 7
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 8
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - BOARD BRIEF
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 10
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 11
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 12
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - NOTES FROM MSCI
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 14
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - THE HEART OF ILMA
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 16
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 17
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 18
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 19
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 20
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - THE ARGUS ANALYSIS
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 22
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 23
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - VOICES & VIEWS
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 25
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - INTERNATIONAL INSIGHT
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 27
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - SPEAKER SPOTLIGHT
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 29
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - FAMILY BUSINESS
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 31
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - FINANCIAL FREEDOM
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 33
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - RULES & REGS
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 35
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - POWER PLAY
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 37
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - LEGAL EASE
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 39
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - THE WHITE PAPER
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 41
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - ADVERTISERS INDEX
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 43
ILMA Compoundings September 2016 - 44
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G121540_ILMA_vol70_no11
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G120882_ILMA_vol70_no10
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G120035_ILMA_vol70_no9
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G121XXX_ILMA_vol70_no8
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G120XXX_ILMA_vol70_no7
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G119XXX_ILMA_vol70_no6
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G118112_ILMA_vol70_no5
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G117382_ILMA_vol70_no4
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G116888_ILMA_vol70_no3
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G115555_ILMA_vol70_no2
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G114774_ILMA_vol70_no1
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/g110500_ILMA_vol69_no12
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/g110500_ILMA_vol69_no11
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/g110500_ILMA_vol69_no10
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/g109884_ILMA_vol69_no9
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/g109284_ILMA_vol69_no8
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/g108494_ILMA_vol69_no7
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/g107507_ILMA_vol69_no6
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/g106483_ILMA_vol69_no5
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/g105803_ILMA_vol69_no4
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/g104743_ILMA_vol69_no3
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/g103647_ILMA_vol69_no2
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/g102869_ILMA_vol69_no1
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/g101930_ILMA_vol68_no12
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/g100836_ILMA_vol68_no11
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/g99200_ILMA_vol68_no10
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/g98468_ILMA_vol68_no9
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/g97711_ILMA_vol68_no8
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G96767ILMA_vol68_no7
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G95397ILMA_vol65_no6
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G94323ILMA_vol68_no5
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G93127_ILMA_vol69_no4
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G91785_ILMA_vol68_no3
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G90956_ILMA_vol68_no2
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G89146_ILMA_vol68_no1
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G87981_ILMA_vol67_no12
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G85409_ILMA_vol67_no11
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G83595_ILMA_vol67_no10
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G81672_ILMA_vol67_no9
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G80238_ILMA_vol7_no8
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G79388_ILMA_vol7_no7
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G78361_ILMA_vol7_no6
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G77448_ILMA_vol7_no5
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G75899_ILMA_vol67_no4
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G75036_ILMA_vol67_no3
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G72720_ILMA_vol67_no2
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G72220_ILMA_vol67_no1
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G70970_ILMA_vol66_no12
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G69813_ILMA_vol66_no11
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G67522_ILMA_vol66_no10
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G66343_ILMA_vol66_no9
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ILMA/G64859_ILMA_vol66_no8
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com