ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 19

engine technology, which in turn has
an impact on the oil formulations.
Some of these relationships are not
always obvious or even predictable.
Looking at the penetration of many
of the technologies highlighted on the
previous chart, we see that OEMs are
using various means to improve fuel
economy. Of course, those with the
highest penetration were in many cases
the easiest or most cost effective to use
- the "low-hanging fruit."
Virtually all the technologies shown
have a direct or indirect impact on the
engine oil. Changes in engine oil have
been required to enable many of these
technologies.
To provide optimal fuel economy
performance, many OEMs are offering
turbocharged gasoline direct injection
(GDI) engines coupled with six-,
seven-, or eight-speed transmissions,
or even continuous variable transmission (CVT). We see a rapid growth
of products incorporating these
technologies in the marketplace. To
enable these technologies, passenger
car motor oils (PCMO) must provide
protection against low speed pre-ignition
(LSPI), oxidation/deposits and soot/
particulate-related wear.
OEMs all over the world are evaluating various aspects of LSPI to better
understand how it is affected by fuels,
lubricants and operating conditions.
LSPI results in formulation of the
flame front (deflagration mode)
resulting from an unknown initiator
that leads to knock. Unlike standard
knock, the initiator can't be described
with bulk gas properties. LSPI has
been found to occur pre-ignition
or post-ignition (similar to surface
ignition). Besides making an audible
noise which is detectable by vehicle
operators, LSPI can result in pressure
spikes of 130 bar or higher. Passenger
car gasoline engines are not designed
to operate at those pressures, and
engine damage can result. Most often

Production Share

100%

MY 2010
MY 2015
75%

50%

25%

0%
VVT

MultiValve

GDI

Turbo

pistons will crack or break because of
these pressure spikes.
Timing chain wear is also an issue.
Turbo GDI engines are more severe
on timing chain wear because of the
higher soot/particulate level and faster
oil degradation. The rate of chain wear
depends on engine operation, chain
design, chain materials, type of lubrication and engine oil.
With direct injection, passenger car
engine oils are tasked with helping
manage soot or particulate matter for
the first time. Previously, soot or particulate matter in the oil has been limited to diesel engines, which also inject
fuel directly into the combustion
chamber. With GDI, passenger car
oils now must be able to provide wear
control with soot or particulate matter
in the oil. As a part of the upcoming
ILSAC GF-6 category change, Ford
is developing a timing chain wear test
using a 2.0-liter turbocharged GDI
engine. The test uses a silent chain
and will measure the percentage of
chain stretch (i.e., a function of wear
between the link pin and plate).

ILSAC GF-6:
What to Expect
Oil specifications are regularly upgraded to reflect concerns raised by OEMs
and to incorporate the latest engine
hardware and its needs. Each new
specification has either new tests or

Cyl.
Deact.

Non- Hybrid
Hybrid
Stop/Start

Diesel

Six
Speed

Seven
Speed

replacement tests. In fact, the specifications are not licensable or credible
without standardized and monitored
tests. For the consumer, the starburst
and donuts are API licensing symbols
that help them identify the correct oil
to use in their vehicles.
While fuel economy continues to be
the driving factor for today's OEMs,
the challenges presented by new
engine technologies will also need to
be addressed. Here's where manufacturers will be focusing: (1) measured
fuel economy benefits in the Sequence
VIE/F, which will include fresh and
used oil requirements; (2) GF-6 oils
minimizing LSPI, allowing for an
indirect fuel economy benefit from
GF-6; and (3) oil robustness. Engine
cleanliness can benefit fuel economy
performance, and GF-6 will continue
requirements to minimize deposits,
sludge and varnish. Wear protection
will also remain an important focus,
demonstrated by the Sequence IVB
and chain wear tests. The key viscosity
grades for GF-6 would be:
* GF-6A: SAE 0W-20, 0W-30,
5W-20, 5W-30, 10W-30
* GF-6B: SAE 0W-16 and lower
(Note that future grades below 0W16 will require additional review by
the Auto-Oil Advisory Panel)
The basic function of additives will
remain the same under GF-6. Namely:
(1) altering the frictional properties

19

CVT



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ILMA Compoundings August 2017

Letter From the President
Letter From the CEO
Inside ILMA
What's Coming Up
In the Know
Industry Rundown
Market Report
Bridging the Gap from ILSAC GF-5 to GF-6
Who's Next
It's About the Process
Business Hub
Counsel Compound
Washington Landscape
Member Connections
Cross Connections
Portrait
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - Cover1
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - Cover2
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 1
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 2
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - Letter From the President
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 4
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - Letter From the CEO
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - Inside ILMA
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 7
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - What's Coming Up
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 9
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - Industry Rundown
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 11
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - Market Report
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 13
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 14
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 15
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - Bridging the Gap from ILSAC GF-5 to GF-6
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 17
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 18
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 19
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 20
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 21
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - Who's Next
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 23
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 24
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 25
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 26
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 27
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - It's About the Process
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 29
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 30
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 31
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - Business Hub
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 33
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - Counsel Compound
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 35
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - Member Connections
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 37
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - Cross Connections
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - 39
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - Portrait
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - Cover3
ILMA Compoundings August 2017 - Cover4
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