ITE Journal February 2018 - 32

Bicycling and bike share have the potential to benefit disadvantaged communities by providing new mobility options, while also
providing an opportunity for recreation and physical activity. We
recently completed a three-part study to explore dimensions of bike
share equity, including 1) efforts among public bike share system
operators around the country; 2) views and experiences of residents
in lower-income communities of color regarding biking and bike
share; and 3) experiences of lower-income and people of color
who do use bike share. Our findings provide insight into effective
strategies to attract new and diverse users, benefits to current and
potential participants, and topics needing additional research.

Part 1: Survey of Bike Share Systems/Operators
As a first step, we asked bike share systems if and how they were
approaching issues of equity. For example: Do they have equity
policy statements? Do they consider equity when making or implementing decisions relating to the bike share system? Do they have
metrics to understand how equitable their system may be, or if their
efforts to improve equity are successful? We focused on systems
in the United States with at least 40 bikes. In total, representatives
of 75 active or pre-launch systems were invited via email to take
a short survey, with 56 systems responding. Just over half of the
responding systems we considered were medium-sized (100-500
bikes), while around a quarter were small systems (40-100 bikes)
and another quarter were large systems (>500 bikes).
Less than one in four surveyed systems had written equity
policies. A similarly low percentage indicated having metrics for
measuring equity-related outcomes. Many others indicated that,
whether or not they had written policies, they considered equity in
various specific elements of their system-for example 72 percent
indicated they considered equity when establishing fee and payment
systems, while 68 percent indicated they considered equity when
siting bike share stations.
Larger bike share systems (more than 500 bikes) were more
likely to have a formal equity policy, with nearly half having one.
Further research is needed to understand whether this is due to
greater resources or something else. Pre-launch systems were
also more likely to consider equity. More research is needed to
understand whether this represents a shift over time or good
intentions not being realized.
We also asked system representatives to identify the top issues
that prevent equity target populations from using bike share. Top
cited barriers were price and payment (50 percent), inadequate
bike networks (43 percent), lack of knowledge about the system
(32 percent), and negative perceptions of bike share/bicycling (25
percent). Many of these themes would show up in our surveys of
community residents and bike share users.
Overall, most bike share system operators demonstrated
awareness of the equity challenges they (and their users) faced.
32

Februar y 2018

ite jo u rn al

However, articulating and codifying what their equity policies
and efforts should look like, and how they would assess their
progress through clear metrics, are issues that many systems are
grappling with.

Part 2: Survey of Community Residents
To understand how people living in low-income neighborhoods and
communities of color view bicycling and bike share, we surveyed
residents living in areas targeted by BBSP efforts in three focus
cities (Philadelphia, PA; Chicago, IL; and Brooklyn, NY). We also
recruited residents from similar nearby neighborhoods that had not
received BBSP outreach, but those data are not included here. We
received 1,885 total responses (11 percent response rate), including
control areas. The populations in the study neighborhoods targeted
for outreach were predominantly people of color (79-94 percent),
and 37-70 percent of households earning under $35,000 per year.
Survey respondents reasonably matched area demographics on
race/ethnicity and income, but were somewhat more likely to
be women, older, and more highly educated. Four demographic
categories formed the basis of our equity-focused analysis: lower-income people of color, higher-income people of color, lower-income
white, and higher-income white, with the last category representing
the more typical current bike share users in U.S. cities. We define
lower-income as 300 percent of the poverty level, which varies with
household size. We also considered gender, age, and geographic
differences in our analysis.
A few key findings emerged. First, while lower-income and
people of color (POC) are not currently using bike share as much as
higher-income white residents, they are just as interested in using it
in the future. Only two percent of lower-income residents surveyed
were current bike share members, while 5 percent of higher-income POC and 10 percent of higher-income white residents were
current members.
However, 11 percent of residents, regardless of race or income,
indicated they expected to be members within a year. Moreover,
over half of the lower-income respondents of color who had an
opinion on the issue indicated that they would like to use bike share
more than they do currently. Asked to select reasons they might try
bike share, lower-income POC were more likely than other residents
to be motivated by bike share for the purpose of getting exercise,
riding as a social activity, or just to try bicycling.
What explains the difference between interest in using bike
share and actual usage? Findings suggested that lower-income
respondents, and particularly lower-income people of color,
faced multiple barriers, with cost (48 percent said this was a "big
barrier"), liability (52 percent), and payment concerns (37 percent)
at the top of the list (Figure 1). Lower-income respondents of color
were also more likely to indicate they didn't feel familiar enough
with the system to use it (34 percent said this was a big barrier). On



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ITE Journal February 2018

President’s Message
Director’s Message
People in the Profession
News
Op/Ed: Why the Uptick in Toll Roads?
Op/Ed: The P3 Paradox
Where in the World?
Calendar
2018 ITE Collegiate Traffic Bowl Kicks Off
Technical Programs Division Spotlight
Member to Member: Gary F. Duncan
Member to Member: Kate Whitfield, P.Eng., MCIP, RPP
New Products
Industry News
Breaking Barriers to Bike Share: Lessons on Bike Share Equity
The Value of Vanpooling as a Strategic, Cost-effective, and Sustainable Transportation Option
Delivering Impactful Projects Quickly and Effectively
Trip and Parking Generation for Shopping Centers in Jordan
Professional Services Directory
ITE Journal February 2018 - 1
ITE Journal February 2018 - 2
ITE Journal February 2018 - 3
ITE Journal February 2018 - President’s Message
ITE Journal February 2018 - 5
ITE Journal February 2018 - Director’s Message
ITE Journal February 2018 - 7
ITE Journal February 2018 - People in the Profession
ITE Journal February 2018 - 9
ITE Journal February 2018 - News
ITE Journal February 2018 - 11
ITE Journal February 2018 - 12
ITE Journal February 2018 - 13
ITE Journal February 2018 - Op/Ed: Why the Uptick in Toll Roads?
ITE Journal February 2018 - 15
ITE Journal February 2018 - Op/Ed: The P3 Paradox
ITE Journal February 2018 - 17
ITE Journal February 2018 - 18
ITE Journal February 2018 - 19
ITE Journal February 2018 - Calendar
ITE Journal February 2018 - 21
ITE Journal February 2018 - 2018 ITE Collegiate Traffic Bowl Kicks Off
ITE Journal February 2018 - Technical Programs Division Spotlight
ITE Journal February 2018 - Member to Member: Gary F. Duncan
ITE Journal February 2018 - 25
ITE Journal February 2018 - Member to Member: Kate Whitfield, P.Eng., MCIP, RPP
ITE Journal February 2018 - 27
ITE Journal February 2018 - Industry News
ITE Journal February 2018 - 29
ITE Journal February 2018 - 30
ITE Journal February 2018 - Breaking Barriers to Bike Share: Lessons on Bike Share Equity
ITE Journal February 2018 - 32
ITE Journal February 2018 - 33
ITE Journal February 2018 - 34
ITE Journal February 2018 - 35
ITE Journal February 2018 - The Value of Vanpooling as a Strategic, Cost-effective, and Sustainable Transportation Option
ITE Journal February 2018 - 37
ITE Journal February 2018 - 38
ITE Journal February 2018 - 39
ITE Journal February 2018 - Delivering Impactful Projects Quickly and Effectively
ITE Journal February 2018 - 41
ITE Journal February 2018 - 42
ITE Journal February 2018 - 43
ITE Journal February 2018 - 44
ITE Journal February 2018 - Trip and Parking Generation for Shopping Centers in Jordan
ITE Journal February 2018 - 46
ITE Journal February 2018 - 47
ITE Journal February 2018 - 48
ITE Journal February 2018 - 49
ITE Journal February 2018 - Professional Services Directory
ITE Journal February 2018 - 51
ITE Journal February 2018 - 52
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