ITE Journal February 2018 - 35

However, outreach methods that employed targeted programs and
discounted memberships do show some success in bridging this gap
by offering an alternate pathway to bike share membership (i.e. "the
price is right, so why not try it," as opposed to "my friends use bike
share, so why not use it").
Cost and liability concerns must be addressed, particularly for
lower-income people. Although some will eventually come to get
much more value out of bike share than the cost of membership, the
upfront cost can be daunting. Fear of being liable for overage fees or
damage charges is also significant, and many lower-income people
do not want use a credit card to pay for bike share for fear that they
will end up paying more than they bargained for. Many others do
not even have credit cards. These people need to feel the cost is
reasonable, and that there will not be any surprise charges.
Any efforts to engage low-income communities and
communities of color in bike share need to recognize that regardless
of race or income, there need to be safe routes to nearby destinations, or bike share is not likely to be seen as reasonable or safe.
The research also points to several opportunities for innovation
in program details based on things we heard from residents and
bike share users. For example, lower income POC were much more
likely than other residents to tell us fun and recreational activities,
including exercise, were reasons they might try bike share. Options
to target bike share use to match these activities should be further
explored. Free transfers with public transportation were viewed by
most residents as a program change that would make them more
likely to use bike share. Increased bike share interoperability with
transit may be a path to improving bike share's attractiveness for
these people.
Finally, we should point out that this study was primarily based
on data from three relatively dense, older cities, and in neighborhoods with majority African-American populations. Although we
observed considerable consistency across the locations, extrapolating to other communities should be undertaken with caution. That
said, we encourage readers to explore the individual survey reports,
which offer much greater detail than could be provided in this
article. Those reports are available at: http://trec.pdx.edu/research/
project/884. itej

References
1. Buck, D., R. Buehler, P. Happ, B. Rawls, P. Chung, and N. Borecki. (2013). "Are
Bikeshare Users Different from Regular Cyclists? A First Look at ShortTerm Users, Annual Members, and Area Cyclists in the Washington, D.C.,
Region." Transportation Research Record. No. 2387, pp 112-119.
2. Shaheen, S., Martin, E., Chan, N.D., Cohen, A.P., and Pogodzinki, M. (2014).
"Public Bikesharing in North America During a Period of Rapid Expansion:
Understanding Business Models, Industry Trends and User Impacts." MTI
Report 12-29. Mineta Transportation Institute.

3. Ursaki, J. and L. Aultman-Hall. (2016). "Quantifying the Equity of Bikeshare
Access in U.S. Cities." Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting,
2016. Paper # 16- 0426.
4. Smith, C. S., J.S. Oh, and C. Lei. (2015). "Exploring the Equity Dimensions
of U.S. Bicycle Sharing Systems." Report TRCLC 14-01. Transportation
Research Center for Livable Communities.
5. Hoe, N. (2015). "Bike Sharing in Low-Income Communities: Perceptions
and Knowledge." April-October 2015. Temple University Institute for
Survey Research Report.

Nathan McNeil is a research associate at the Center
for Urban Studies at Portland State University. He
conducts research around impacts of new bicycle
infrastructure and programs on travel behavior and
attitudes towards cycling, shared-use mobility
programs including carsharing and bike-share, and
the connection between land-use and transportation. Nathan received
a master of urban and regional planning from Portland State
University (PSU) and studied history at Columbia University as an
undergraduate. Prior to PSU, Nathan worked for the Metropolitan
Transportation Authority in New York City as a performance auditor
where he evaluated capital programs and contractors.
Joseph Broach is a research associate with the
Transportation Research and Education Center
(TREC) and an instructor in the School of Urban
Studies and Planning at Portland State University. He
holds a master's degree in economics from the
University of Montana and a doctorate in urban
studies from Portland State. His work primarily focuses on transportation data, behavior, and modeling, and he helped design the
Portland, OR region's next-generation bicycle model in conjunction
with Metro. In his free time he enjoys cycling, fly-fishing, and
exploring great urban places.
Jennifer Dill is a Portland State University professor
and the director of the Transportation Research and
Education Center. She teaches courses in transportation policy, pedestrian and bicycle planning, and
research methods. Her research interests focus on the
interactions of transportation planning, travel
behavior, health, the environment and land use. In general, she is
interested in answering these questions: How do people make their
travel and location decisions? How do those decisions impact the
environment? How do our planning decisions impact people's travel
and location decisions? Prior to entering academia, she worked as an
environmental and transportation planner.

w w w .i t e.or g

Febru ar y 2018

35


http://trec.pdx.edu/research/project/884 http://trec.pdx.edu/research/project/884 http://www.ite.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ITE Journal February 2018

President’s Message
Director’s Message
People in the Profession
News
Op/Ed: Why the Uptick in Toll Roads?
Op/Ed: The P3 Paradox
Where in the World?
Calendar
2018 ITE Collegiate Traffic Bowl Kicks Off
Technical Programs Division Spotlight
Member to Member: Gary F. Duncan
Member to Member: Kate Whitfield, P.Eng., MCIP, RPP
New Products
Industry News
Breaking Barriers to Bike Share: Lessons on Bike Share Equity
The Value of Vanpooling as a Strategic, Cost-effective, and Sustainable Transportation Option
Delivering Impactful Projects Quickly and Effectively
Trip and Parking Generation for Shopping Centers in Jordan
Professional Services Directory
ITE Journal February 2018 - 1
ITE Journal February 2018 - 2
ITE Journal February 2018 - 3
ITE Journal February 2018 - President’s Message
ITE Journal February 2018 - 5
ITE Journal February 2018 - Director’s Message
ITE Journal February 2018 - 7
ITE Journal February 2018 - People in the Profession
ITE Journal February 2018 - 9
ITE Journal February 2018 - News
ITE Journal February 2018 - 11
ITE Journal February 2018 - 12
ITE Journal February 2018 - 13
ITE Journal February 2018 - Op/Ed: Why the Uptick in Toll Roads?
ITE Journal February 2018 - 15
ITE Journal February 2018 - Op/Ed: The P3 Paradox
ITE Journal February 2018 - 17
ITE Journal February 2018 - 18
ITE Journal February 2018 - 19
ITE Journal February 2018 - Calendar
ITE Journal February 2018 - 21
ITE Journal February 2018 - 2018 ITE Collegiate Traffic Bowl Kicks Off
ITE Journal February 2018 - Technical Programs Division Spotlight
ITE Journal February 2018 - Member to Member: Gary F. Duncan
ITE Journal February 2018 - 25
ITE Journal February 2018 - Member to Member: Kate Whitfield, P.Eng., MCIP, RPP
ITE Journal February 2018 - 27
ITE Journal February 2018 - Industry News
ITE Journal February 2018 - 29
ITE Journal February 2018 - 30
ITE Journal February 2018 - Breaking Barriers to Bike Share: Lessons on Bike Share Equity
ITE Journal February 2018 - 32
ITE Journal February 2018 - 33
ITE Journal February 2018 - 34
ITE Journal February 2018 - 35
ITE Journal February 2018 - The Value of Vanpooling as a Strategic, Cost-effective, and Sustainable Transportation Option
ITE Journal February 2018 - 37
ITE Journal February 2018 - 38
ITE Journal February 2018 - 39
ITE Journal February 2018 - Delivering Impactful Projects Quickly and Effectively
ITE Journal February 2018 - 41
ITE Journal February 2018 - 42
ITE Journal February 2018 - 43
ITE Journal February 2018 - 44
ITE Journal February 2018 - Trip and Parking Generation for Shopping Centers in Jordan
ITE Journal February 2018 - 46
ITE Journal February 2018 - 47
ITE Journal February 2018 - 48
ITE Journal February 2018 - 49
ITE Journal February 2018 - Professional Services Directory
ITE Journal February 2018 - 51
ITE Journal February 2018 - 52
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