ITE Journal February 2018 - 46

Data Collection

In fact, guidelines for trip generation and parking needs are readily
available in the literature; however, differences in car ownership,
economic conditions, transport systems, and users' behavior might
influence the accuracy of estimates. Therefore, this study was
undertaken to develop trip generation and parking demand models
for shopping centers in Jordan.1

A total of 28 shopping centers were selected, of which there were
13 centers in Amman, 9 centers in Irbid, and 6 centers in Zarqa.
According to the 2015 census survey, Amman, Irbid, and Zarqa had
a population of 4.0, 1.7, and 1.3 million, respectively.8 Three criteria
were adopted to select the investigated centers. First, each selected
shopping center and its parking lot/garage must have well-defined
entrances and exits. This criterion is necessary to determine
accurately the peak number of attracted persons, peak entering and
exiting vehicles, and peak parking demand. Second, the parking lot/
garage for each shopping center should have an adequate parking
supply. In the selection process, the availability of a sufficient parking
supply was judged through a field survey. Third, the selected shopping
center must be mature and located in a mature area. To achieve
this criterion, it was ensured that each selected center had at least
two years of successful operation. Finally, all investigated shopping
centers were located outside central business districts (CBDs).
Before conducting the final study, three shopping centers having
different characteristics were selected to determine the time period
during which the peak trips and parking demand occurred. For
these centers, a field survey was conducted from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m.
on Tuesday, as a working day, and Friday as a holiday. The study
revealed that the peak period extended from 5 p.m. to 8 p.m. on
Tuesday and from 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. on Friday.
For all included shopping centers, the final study was conducted
during the peak periods mentioned above. Surveyors stood near
the entrances and exits and manually counted the number of
persons and vehicles entering and the number of vehicles exiting
the shopping center, and data were recorded by 15-minute intervals.
At the same time, a parking accumulation study was conducted by
counting the number of vehicles entering and exiting the parking
lot/garage during 15-minute intervals. The obtained data were used
to compute peak hour trips and parking demand.
Data on the characteristics of the selected shopping centers were
acquired through field survey, the shopping center administrative
office, and other related sources. Table 1 presents the statistical
characteristics of the collected physical variables. Also, availability of
a cinema, health/fitness or a gym, and bank services were considered

Background
The Institute of Transportation Engineers (ITE) Trip Generation
Manual provides general guidelines and values of trip generation
for different land use developments.2 The manual is considered as
the standard reference for developers, municipalities, and road
agencies who seek to assess the impacts of new developments
on transportation and traffic along road networks within their
influence areas. It indicates that the average trip generation rate per
100 square meters (m2) of gross leasable area (GLA) varied from
2.16 for regional centers to 10.01 for neighborhood centers, with
an average of 3.76 vehicle trips /100 m2 of GLA at the peak hour
period. However, ITE emphasizes that these values are applicable
to suburban, automobile-oriented areas and are not recommended
for use in downtowns, mixed-use developments, or transit-oriented
developments. Other studies found that trip generation is highly
related to the number of employees in the shopping center.3 Finally,
Mamun et al. indicated that small size shopping centers have higher
average trip rates than medium size shopping centers.4
For shopping centers, the Urban Land Institute (ULI) and the
International Council of Shopping Centers (ICSC) estimate the
peak parking demand according to the GLA. The required parking
demands varied from 4.0 to 4.6 spaces/100 m2 of the GLA. The ITE
Parking Generation Guide provides an estimate value of 5.05 spaces/
100 m2 of the GLA.5 According to the Department of Transport
of Abu Dhabi, the required peak parking demands for shopping
centers varied from 3.33 to 5.0 spaces/100 m2 of gross floor area
(GFA).6 In Jordan, Al-Masaeid et al. estimated vehicle parking
demand for different land uses.7 For shopping centers, they found
that the peak parking demand increases linearly as a function of
GFA. The results indicated that peak parking demand varied from
1.25 to 4.8 spaces/100 m2 of GFA.
Table 1. Descriptive physical characteristics of the collected variables.
Variable

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Gross floor area, GFA, (m )

28

750

165000

24315.00

43749.69

Number of floors

28

1

8

3.71

2.11

Number of shops

28

3

158

39.32

46.52

Number of employees, NE

28

18

4300

599.68

1070.12

Number of available parking spaces

28

30

2500

461.89

623.07

Number of entrances/driveways

28

1

5

3.14

1.21

2

46

Februar y 2018

ite jo u rn al



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ITE Journal February 2018

President’s Message
Director’s Message
People in the Profession
News
Op/Ed: Why the Uptick in Toll Roads?
Op/Ed: The P3 Paradox
Where in the World?
Calendar
2018 ITE Collegiate Traffic Bowl Kicks Off
Technical Programs Division Spotlight
Member to Member: Gary F. Duncan
Member to Member: Kate Whitfield, P.Eng., MCIP, RPP
New Products
Industry News
Breaking Barriers to Bike Share: Lessons on Bike Share Equity
The Value of Vanpooling as a Strategic, Cost-effective, and Sustainable Transportation Option
Delivering Impactful Projects Quickly and Effectively
Trip and Parking Generation for Shopping Centers in Jordan
Professional Services Directory
ITE Journal February 2018 - 1
ITE Journal February 2018 - 2
ITE Journal February 2018 - 3
ITE Journal February 2018 - President’s Message
ITE Journal February 2018 - 5
ITE Journal February 2018 - Director’s Message
ITE Journal February 2018 - 7
ITE Journal February 2018 - People in the Profession
ITE Journal February 2018 - 9
ITE Journal February 2018 - News
ITE Journal February 2018 - 11
ITE Journal February 2018 - 12
ITE Journal February 2018 - 13
ITE Journal February 2018 - Op/Ed: Why the Uptick in Toll Roads?
ITE Journal February 2018 - 15
ITE Journal February 2018 - Op/Ed: The P3 Paradox
ITE Journal February 2018 - 17
ITE Journal February 2018 - 18
ITE Journal February 2018 - 19
ITE Journal February 2018 - Calendar
ITE Journal February 2018 - 21
ITE Journal February 2018 - 2018 ITE Collegiate Traffic Bowl Kicks Off
ITE Journal February 2018 - Technical Programs Division Spotlight
ITE Journal February 2018 - Member to Member: Gary F. Duncan
ITE Journal February 2018 - 25
ITE Journal February 2018 - Member to Member: Kate Whitfield, P.Eng., MCIP, RPP
ITE Journal February 2018 - 27
ITE Journal February 2018 - Industry News
ITE Journal February 2018 - 29
ITE Journal February 2018 - 30
ITE Journal February 2018 - Breaking Barriers to Bike Share: Lessons on Bike Share Equity
ITE Journal February 2018 - 32
ITE Journal February 2018 - 33
ITE Journal February 2018 - 34
ITE Journal February 2018 - 35
ITE Journal February 2018 - The Value of Vanpooling as a Strategic, Cost-effective, and Sustainable Transportation Option
ITE Journal February 2018 - 37
ITE Journal February 2018 - 38
ITE Journal February 2018 - 39
ITE Journal February 2018 - Delivering Impactful Projects Quickly and Effectively
ITE Journal February 2018 - 41
ITE Journal February 2018 - 42
ITE Journal February 2018 - 43
ITE Journal February 2018 - 44
ITE Journal February 2018 - Trip and Parking Generation for Shopping Centers in Jordan
ITE Journal February 2018 - 46
ITE Journal February 2018 - 47
ITE Journal February 2018 - 48
ITE Journal February 2018 - 49
ITE Journal February 2018 - Professional Services Directory
ITE Journal February 2018 - 51
ITE Journal February 2018 - 52
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