ITE Journal February 2018 - 47

in the data collection. Finally, Table 2 shows the statistical characteristics of obtained data on peak entering persons, peak entering
vehicles, peak entering and exiting vehicles (IN and OUT), and peak
parking demands. Compared with Tuesday, Friday had the highest
trips and parking demands, as shown in Table 2.

VTT and VTF: peak hour entering vehicles on Tuesday and
Friday, respectively.
TVT and TVF: peak hour vehicles (IN+OUT) on Tuesday and
Friday, respectively.
PVT and PVF: peak hour parking demand on Tuesday and
Friday, respectively, and
GFA: Gross Floor Area in thousand m2

Analysis and Modeling Results
The analyses revealed that each of the peak hour person trips, peak
hour entering vehicles, peak hour entering and exiting vehicles
(IN+OUT), or peak hour parking demand is strongly correlated
with GFA, number of employees (NE), available parking spaces,
and existence of a cinema in the shopping center. Also, analysis
indicated that strong multicollinearity exists between each pair of
these independent variables. Thus, each of the response variables
can be estimated using GFA or NE separately. In fact, the use of
GFA is much more transparent for planning purposes, while NE is
preferred for operational purposes.

Each of the equations and its parameters were found to be statistically significant at the 95 percent confidence level. The coefficient
of determination, R 2, for each of the equations was very high. Based
on the analysis of variance (ANOVA), the R 2 was calculated as the
ratio of regression sum of squares to the total sum of squares.

Trip and Parking Generation Rates
In the study, GFA and NE were considered as the independent
variables. Table 3 shows peak hour person attraction, vehicle trips
attraction, total IN+OUT vehicle trips, and parking generation
rates on Tuesday and Friday. For five GFA classes of shopping
centers, peak rates were computed per 100 m2 of GFA or per 100
employees, as shown in the table. For each GFA class, the weighted
average rate was computed by dividing the trip sum by the sum of
the independent variable. Also, the overall weighted average rate for
each variable was calculated by dividing the overall sum of trips or
parking demands by the overall sum of the independent variable.

Regression Analysis Approach
The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used in the
analysis.9 Based on regression analysis and using GFA as the
independent variable, the following equations were found to best fit
the empirical data for Tuesday:
PTT = 26.01 GFA
R 2 =0.95
(1)
VTT = 7.02 GFA
R 2 =0.89
(2)
TVT = 13.30 GFA
R 2 =0.91
(3)
PVT = 9.01 GFA
R 2 =0.90
(4)
Similarly, the following equations were developed for Friday:
PTF = 165.31 +30.69 GFA
R 2 =0.96
(5)
VTF = 8.66 GFA
R 2 =0.91
(6)
TVF = 16.49 GFA
R 2 =0.91
(7)
PVF= 10.92 GFA
R 2 =0.94
(8)
Where:
PTT and PTF: peak hour persons attracted on Tuesday and
Friday, respectively.

Discussion
As shown in Table 3, results of this study indicated that the
weighted average person trip rate was about 9.5 person trips/
hr./100 m2 of GFA. This result is close to the values obtained in
Bangladesh and the Philippines, which were 8 and 7.35 person
trips/hr./100 m2 of GFA, respectively.10,11 However, the ITE Trip
Generation Manual focused on vehicle trips rather than person
trips. Unlike the weighted average of the number of vehicle trips
in developed countries, the trip rate in Jordan is relatively low. For

Table 2. Descriptive statistics for included trips and parking variables.
Variable

N

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

Std. Deviation

Person trips/hour (Friday), PTF

28

106

5648

911.64

1374.04

Vehicle trips/hour (Friday), VTF

28

42

1676

250.29

376.68

Person trips/hour (Tuesday), PTT

28

75

4941

714.39

1123.65

Vehicle trips/hour (Tuesday), VTT

28

30

1498

203.82

310.29

Parked vehicles/hour (Friday), PVF

28

25

2151

284.64

485.74

Parked vehicles/hour (Tuesday), PVT

28

22

1941

229.79

415.36

Total vehicles (IN+OUT)/ hour (Friday), TVF

28

84

2940

475.04

719.81

Total vehicles (IN+OUT)/ hour (Tuesday),TVT

28

63

2664

385.11

580.74

w w w .i t e.or g

Febru ar y 2018

47


http://www.ite.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ITE Journal February 2018

President’s Message
Director’s Message
People in the Profession
News
Op/Ed: Why the Uptick in Toll Roads?
Op/Ed: The P3 Paradox
Where in the World?
Calendar
2018 ITE Collegiate Traffic Bowl Kicks Off
Technical Programs Division Spotlight
Member to Member: Gary F. Duncan
Member to Member: Kate Whitfield, P.Eng., MCIP, RPP
New Products
Industry News
Breaking Barriers to Bike Share: Lessons on Bike Share Equity
The Value of Vanpooling as a Strategic, Cost-effective, and Sustainable Transportation Option
Delivering Impactful Projects Quickly and Effectively
Trip and Parking Generation for Shopping Centers in Jordan
Professional Services Directory
ITE Journal February 2018 - 1
ITE Journal February 2018 - 2
ITE Journal February 2018 - 3
ITE Journal February 2018 - President’s Message
ITE Journal February 2018 - 5
ITE Journal February 2018 - Director’s Message
ITE Journal February 2018 - 7
ITE Journal February 2018 - People in the Profession
ITE Journal February 2018 - 9
ITE Journal February 2018 - News
ITE Journal February 2018 - 11
ITE Journal February 2018 - 12
ITE Journal February 2018 - 13
ITE Journal February 2018 - Op/Ed: Why the Uptick in Toll Roads?
ITE Journal February 2018 - 15
ITE Journal February 2018 - Op/Ed: The P3 Paradox
ITE Journal February 2018 - 17
ITE Journal February 2018 - 18
ITE Journal February 2018 - 19
ITE Journal February 2018 - Calendar
ITE Journal February 2018 - 21
ITE Journal February 2018 - 2018 ITE Collegiate Traffic Bowl Kicks Off
ITE Journal February 2018 - Technical Programs Division Spotlight
ITE Journal February 2018 - Member to Member: Gary F. Duncan
ITE Journal February 2018 - 25
ITE Journal February 2018 - Member to Member: Kate Whitfield, P.Eng., MCIP, RPP
ITE Journal February 2018 - 27
ITE Journal February 2018 - Industry News
ITE Journal February 2018 - 29
ITE Journal February 2018 - 30
ITE Journal February 2018 - Breaking Barriers to Bike Share: Lessons on Bike Share Equity
ITE Journal February 2018 - 32
ITE Journal February 2018 - 33
ITE Journal February 2018 - 34
ITE Journal February 2018 - 35
ITE Journal February 2018 - The Value of Vanpooling as a Strategic, Cost-effective, and Sustainable Transportation Option
ITE Journal February 2018 - 37
ITE Journal February 2018 - 38
ITE Journal February 2018 - 39
ITE Journal February 2018 - Delivering Impactful Projects Quickly and Effectively
ITE Journal February 2018 - 41
ITE Journal February 2018 - 42
ITE Journal February 2018 - 43
ITE Journal February 2018 - 44
ITE Journal February 2018 - Trip and Parking Generation for Shopping Centers in Jordan
ITE Journal February 2018 - 46
ITE Journal February 2018 - 47
ITE Journal February 2018 - 48
ITE Journal February 2018 - 49
ITE Journal February 2018 - Professional Services Directory
ITE Journal February 2018 - 51
ITE Journal February 2018 - 52
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