ITE Journal February 2018 - 48

Table 3. Trip generation and parking demand rates on Tuesday and Friday.
Friday
Trips/hr./100 m2
(Trips/hr./100 Employee)

Gross floor area, Tuesday
GFA
Trips/hr./100 m2
(Trips/hr./100 Employee)
X 1000 m2

Person trips

Entering
vehicle trips

Vehicle trips
(IN+OUT)

Vehicle parking Person trips
demand

Entering
vehicle trips

Vehicle trips
(IN+OUT)

Vehicle parking
demand

PTT

VTT

TVT

VPT

PTF

VTF

TVF

VPF

<3

13.53
(216.4)

4.66
(79.0)

8.62
(144.6)

3.19
(53.9)

18.75
(302.6)

5.69
(95.4)

10.74
(183.4)

4.11
(63.4)

3-9

5.29
(197.2)

1.69
(64.5)

3.25
(127.7)

1.54
(52.4)

6.75
(244.9)

2.02
(74.3)

4.00
(149.3)

1.85
(61.4)

9-40

3.41
(259.0)

0.79
(74.3)

1.87
(144.4)

0.97
(72.2)

4.26
(320.0)

1.12
(84.0)

2.19
(165.8)

1.08
(80.7)

40-70

1.78
(142.4)

0.53
(46.7)

1.09
(88.5)

0.56
(46.0)

2.47
(197.6)

0.78
(62.6)

1.35
(109.4)

0.82
(65.8)

> 70

2.5
(100.3)

0.62
(17.3)

1.19
(48.6)

0.87
(34.1)

2.79
(124.1)

0.77
(31.3)

1.46
(59.1)

1.09
(42.4)

Overall
weighted average

6.87
(201.2)

2.28
(25.8)

4.38
(122.2)

1.83
(52.4)

9.46
(253.5)

2.84
(45.6)

5.42
(148.1)

2.30
(62.5)

example, the number of trips varied from 0.77 to 5.69 trips/hr./100
m2 of GFA, with an average value of 2.84 trips/hr./100 m2 of GFA.
In contrast, the weighted average trip rate in the U.S. is about
3.76 trips/hr./100 m2 of GLA. Based on the weighted average trip
ends, entering and exiting (IN + OUT), the average trip rates in
Jordan are considerably low when compared with rates developed
in Arab wealthy countries. For medium size shopping centers
(20,000-70,000 m2 of GFA), the obtained trip rate in Jordan is
1.8 trips/hr./100 m2 of GFA, compared with 3.5 trips/hr./100 m2
of GFA in Dubai.12 Finally, results of this study showed that the
parking demand rates varied from 4.11 space/100 m2 for small
centers to nearly 1.1 space/100 m2 of GFA for large centers, with
average value of 2.3 space/100 m2 of GFA. Again, this average
value is very low compared with cited values for Abu Dhabi or
the United States.
It is obvious that there are large differences between estimates
obtained in this study and the corresponding cited values. These
differences in trip rates or parking demands may be attributed
to car ownership, mode of transportation, income level, and
lifestyle, among other reasons. Car ownership in Jordan is about
one vehicle to every 6 persons, while the corresponding figure
in the United States and wealthy Arab countries is about one
vehicle to every two persons. In fact, in Jordan about 40 percent
of trips are made by public transit, while in the United States or
rich Arab countries the share of public transit is negligible or
relatively very low.
48

Februar y 2018

ite jo u rn al

Conclusions
Trip and parking generation for shopping centers in Jordan were
investigated. Gross floor area and number of employees were found
to be the most determinate factors. Statistical models having linear
form and weighted average trip rates were developed for estimating
peak hour person trips, entering vehicle trips, entering and exiting
vehicle trips, and parking demand. Compared with standard figures
for developed countries, vehicle trip rates and parking demands for
shopping centers in Jordan have lower values. itej

References
1. Oruba M. Al Shehab. "Trip generation for shopping centers in urban areas
in Jordan." M. Sc. Thesis. Civil Engineering Department, Jordan University
of Science and Technology (JUST), August 2016.
2. Institute of Transportation Engineers. Trip Generation Manual, 9th Edition,
ISBN No: 0.935403-79-5, Washington, DC, USA, 2012.
3. George, P. and G. J. Kattor. "Forecasting trip attraction based on
commercial land use characteristic." International Journal of Research in
Engineering and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 9, 2013: 471-479.
4. Mamun, M. S., S. M. Rahman, M. M. Rahman, Y. B. Aziz, and M. A. Raihan.
"Determination of trip attraction rates of shopping centers in Dhaka city." 2nd
International Conference on Advances in Civil Engineering, 26-28 Dec., 2014.
5. Institute of Transportation Engineers, ITE. Parking Generation. 4th ed.
Washington, DC, 2010.
6. The Department of Transport of Abu Dhabi. Trip Generation and Parking
Rates Manual for Emirate of Abu Dhabi. Abu Dhabi, UAE, 2012.



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ITE Journal February 2018

President’s Message
Director’s Message
People in the Profession
News
Op/Ed: Why the Uptick in Toll Roads?
Op/Ed: The P3 Paradox
Where in the World?
Calendar
2018 ITE Collegiate Traffic Bowl Kicks Off
Technical Programs Division Spotlight
Member to Member: Gary F. Duncan
Member to Member: Kate Whitfield, P.Eng., MCIP, RPP
New Products
Industry News
Breaking Barriers to Bike Share: Lessons on Bike Share Equity
The Value of Vanpooling as a Strategic, Cost-effective, and Sustainable Transportation Option
Delivering Impactful Projects Quickly and Effectively
Trip and Parking Generation for Shopping Centers in Jordan
Professional Services Directory
ITE Journal February 2018 - 1
ITE Journal February 2018 - 2
ITE Journal February 2018 - 3
ITE Journal February 2018 - President’s Message
ITE Journal February 2018 - 5
ITE Journal February 2018 - Director’s Message
ITE Journal February 2018 - 7
ITE Journal February 2018 - People in the Profession
ITE Journal February 2018 - 9
ITE Journal February 2018 - News
ITE Journal February 2018 - 11
ITE Journal February 2018 - 12
ITE Journal February 2018 - 13
ITE Journal February 2018 - Op/Ed: Why the Uptick in Toll Roads?
ITE Journal February 2018 - 15
ITE Journal February 2018 - Op/Ed: The P3 Paradox
ITE Journal February 2018 - 17
ITE Journal February 2018 - 18
ITE Journal February 2018 - 19
ITE Journal February 2018 - Calendar
ITE Journal February 2018 - 21
ITE Journal February 2018 - 2018 ITE Collegiate Traffic Bowl Kicks Off
ITE Journal February 2018 - Technical Programs Division Spotlight
ITE Journal February 2018 - Member to Member: Gary F. Duncan
ITE Journal February 2018 - 25
ITE Journal February 2018 - Member to Member: Kate Whitfield, P.Eng., MCIP, RPP
ITE Journal February 2018 - 27
ITE Journal February 2018 - Industry News
ITE Journal February 2018 - 29
ITE Journal February 2018 - 30
ITE Journal February 2018 - Breaking Barriers to Bike Share: Lessons on Bike Share Equity
ITE Journal February 2018 - 32
ITE Journal February 2018 - 33
ITE Journal February 2018 - 34
ITE Journal February 2018 - 35
ITE Journal February 2018 - The Value of Vanpooling as a Strategic, Cost-effective, and Sustainable Transportation Option
ITE Journal February 2018 - 37
ITE Journal February 2018 - 38
ITE Journal February 2018 - 39
ITE Journal February 2018 - Delivering Impactful Projects Quickly and Effectively
ITE Journal February 2018 - 41
ITE Journal February 2018 - 42
ITE Journal February 2018 - 43
ITE Journal February 2018 - 44
ITE Journal February 2018 - Trip and Parking Generation for Shopping Centers in Jordan
ITE Journal February 2018 - 46
ITE Journal February 2018 - 47
ITE Journal February 2018 - 48
ITE Journal February 2018 - 49
ITE Journal February 2018 - Professional Services Directory
ITE Journal February 2018 - 51
ITE Journal February 2018 - 52
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