ITE Journal May 2018 - 15

arterial while accounting for the competing
demands of motorists, freight, transit, and
active travelers? Consult the manual? And
where does health come in?
Mr. Leight offered another useful example:
A corridor design allows for enhanced transit service and a protected bicycle facility.
The reduced vehicle speeds enhance the
attractiveness of the bicycle facility, but
this attribute increases transit travel times,
negatively impacting transit riders. As the
engineer on the job, he wondered how he
could quantify the tradeoff between the
negative impact to accessibility and the positive impact to active living.15
According to Brian Ray, Senior Principal with
Kittelson & Associates, Inc. and TRB Design
Section Chair and Arterial Task Force member,
"We should follow the lead of what we have
been doing with safety."16 He continued:
We know that safety should be part of our
projects, but we have not always been able
to accomplish this. As we have been able to
better quantify safety, we have been able to
make better choices. Improved safety metrics has been a major advance. For me, as
an engineer, integrating quantitative public
health performance metrics into our projects would allow us to evaluate a range
of potential project solutions with public
health as one of the guiding factors.16

Leslie Meehan, Tennessee Department of
Health, has discussed developing a Health
Level of Service. Matthew Ridgway, Fehr &
Peers DC, has also pointed to level of service
as a framework that currently fails us from the
health perspective because it does not give
perspective about physical activity, safety,
and equity.18 Ms. Meehan has noted that the
tools that we have (e.g., Integrated Transport and Health Impact Modelling Tool) are
designed for regional and macro analysis and
not easily adapted to street-level analysis.18
Another approach might be to develop a
highway health manual given the growing
interest in public health, the complexity
of the questions facing planners, and the
reoccurring tradeoffs that transportation
engineers face.19 However, producing a
manual is not a simple task. It will take years
and years of discussion, leadership, and perseverance to create such a resource. Before
we can collect data and develop metrics,
we ought to think about what those metrics
should be, how to produce them, and what
will the product look like.

Combining arterials and public health is not
a one-way street in terms of tradeoffs. Table
1 suggests that the goals for arterials could
include health promotion as well as prevention.
How can we achieve the positive benefits and
outcomes while reducing the negative ones?

Despite these gaps in practice, we need to
keep moving forward and stay coordinated.
A variety of health and transportation activities are happening in the nooks and crannies
of many organizations. Depending on one's
perspective, these efforts might be seen as
separate uncoordinated activities. On the
other hand, one might see these efforts as
Ken Rose, Policy Analyst at the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention, does: "For
once there is so much activity underway that
it's hard to keep track of everything going
on."19 Regardless of one's perspective, the
point remains that transportation professionals struggle to know that they are doing the
right thing for public health.

Some would suggest using Health Impact
Assessments (HIAs) on all projects. But as
one study found, HIAs have been driven by
the public health sector with inconsistent
support from transportation.17

Bringing the disciplines together to work on
a highway health manual might be fruitful.
Practitioners in transportation, urban planning, and public health all have a desire
for guidance and evidence to make deci-

Do these metrics exist?

sions about arterial roads. When a roadway
designer, operations engineer, public health
professional, and sustainability planner work
together, they may ask what makes for a
"high-performing arterial." Yet, researchers,
practitioners, and planners have different criteria for performance. The key opportunity is
to bring together transportation and public
health to incorporate different performance
measures into decision-making about arterial
design while balancing the complementary
and competing demands of transportation
and health related goals.
Recognizing that developing a manual has
some attractiveness there is also a concern
that arterials might defy the notion of a
manual because they are much more complex than what a manual captures. Tackling
this is not a simple task. The problem we face
is twofold. How to deal with health? And,
how to adapt transportation practices, tools,
and models to accommodate public health
considerations? This manual would need to
be nimble about multi-sector and multi-jurisdictional tradeoffs and conflicts, as well
as dealing with limited evidence and competing social values. We cannot ignore the
opportunity to address these problems.
In transportation, we have experience developing handbooks, manuals, guidance, and
even regulations. We also know that they
take time, patience, and resources. None of
our manuals, e.g. the Traffic Safety Manual,
the Highway Capacity Manual, the American
Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials Green Book or even the
Highway Performance Management System
field manual were developed overnight or in
a vacuum. They have taken years and even
decades to assemble, adjust, and fine tune.
They represent a process not an end. Yet, all
the transportation manuals had a starting
point. Does the transportation and public
health community have the wherewithal to
begin such an undertaking? The challenge
and ultimate success are ready for our action.
So how do we begin?
w w w .i t e.o r g

May 2018

15


http://www.ite.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ITE Journal May 2018

President’s Message
Director’s Message
People in the Profession
ITE News
ITE, FHWA, and Carmanah Rally to Keep Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacons in Our Safety Toolbox
Improving Arterial Roads to Support Public Health: How Can We Do This?
ITE’s Transportation and Health Initiative
Technical Programs Division Spotlight
Industry News
Calendar
Where in the World?
Member to Member: Jing Zhang, AICP, PTP, LEED AP ND
Countermeasures Prove Effective in Reducing Bicycle Collisions
Guidance on Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians to Improve Walkability
Factors Affecting Vehicle Passing Distance and Encroachments While Overtaking Cyclists
Measuring the Success of Modal Shift: The Impact on Last Mile Connectivity
Professional Services Directory
ITE Journal May 2018 - 1
ITE Journal May 2018 - 2
ITE Journal May 2018 - 3
ITE Journal May 2018 - President’s Message
ITE Journal May 2018 - 5
ITE Journal May 2018 - Director’s Message
ITE Journal May 2018 - 7
ITE Journal May 2018 - People in the Profession
ITE Journal May 2018 - 9
ITE Journal May 2018 - 10
ITE Journal May 2018 - ITE News
ITE Journal May 2018 - ITE, FHWA, and Carmanah Rally to Keep Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacons in Our Safety Toolbox
ITE Journal May 2018 - Improving Arterial Roads to Support Public Health: How Can We Do This?
ITE Journal May 2018 - 14
ITE Journal May 2018 - 15
ITE Journal May 2018 - 16
ITE Journal May 2018 - ITE’s Transportation and Health Initiative
ITE Journal May 2018 - 18
ITE Journal May 2018 - Technical Programs Division Spotlight
ITE Journal May 2018 - Industry News
ITE Journal May 2018 - 21
ITE Journal May 2018 - Where in the World?
ITE Journal May 2018 - 23
ITE Journal May 2018 - 24
ITE Journal May 2018 - 25
ITE Journal May 2018 - 26
ITE Journal May 2018 - Member to Member: Jing Zhang, AICP, PTP, LEED AP ND
ITE Journal May 2018 - 28
ITE Journal May 2018 - Countermeasures Prove Effective in Reducing Bicycle Collisions
ITE Journal May 2018 - 30
ITE Journal May 2018 - 31
ITE Journal May 2018 - 32
ITE Journal May 2018 - 33
ITE Journal May 2018 - 34
ITE Journal May 2018 - Guidance on Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians to Improve Walkability
ITE Journal May 2018 - 36
ITE Journal May 2018 - 37
ITE Journal May 2018 - 38
ITE Journal May 2018 - 39
ITE Journal May 2018 - Factors Affecting Vehicle Passing Distance and Encroachments While Overtaking Cyclists
ITE Journal May 2018 - 41
ITE Journal May 2018 - 42
ITE Journal May 2018 - 43
ITE Journal May 2018 - 44
ITE Journal May 2018 - 45
ITE Journal May 2018 - Measuring the Success of Modal Shift: The Impact on Last Mile Connectivity
ITE Journal May 2018 - 47
ITE Journal May 2018 - 48
ITE Journal May 2018 - 49
ITE Journal May 2018 - Professional Services Directory
ITE Journal May 2018 - 51
ITE Journal May 2018 - 52
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