ITE Journal May 2018 - 36

Pedestrian Signal Timing Strategies
Leading Pedestrian Interval
Leading pedestrian interval (LPI) refers to a signal control strategy
where pedestrians are provided with a walk indication for a few
seconds prior to the onset of the concurrent vehicular green indication,
allowing pedestrians to establish themselves in the intersection before
conflicting vehicles are released. Figure 1 shows the ring-and-barrier
diagram, where pedestrian phases 2 and 6 have an LPI.
The advantages of an LPI are primarily safety related, with
evidence of reduced conflicts between pedestrians and turning
vehicles.2 Efficiency impacts have been less studied, but authors
agree on an increase in delays due to lost time for vehicles.3,4,5 The
magnitude of increase in delay depends on a number of factors such
as the length of the leading pedestrian interval, whether the intersection is in coordination, cycle length, and whether the LPI has
been implemented for pedestrian phases on the major, minor-street,
or both. Saneinejad and Lo developed a worksheet tool to assess the
suitability of a location for LPI implementation and recommend
conducting a before-after analysis to understand the impacts.5
Exclusive Pedestrian Phase (Barnes Dance)
An exclusive pedestrian phase is a type of phasing in which
pedestrians have exclusive use of the intersection including lateral
and diagonal crossings while all vehicular traffic is stopped, with the
WALK signal displayed simultaneously for all crosswalks. Figure 2
shows the ring-and-barrier diagram for the Barnes Dance (phase 12).
While this phasing eliminates conflicts for pedestrians and is
effective in reducing pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes, it increases
both vehicular and pedestrian delays due to increased cycle length,
especially if pedestrians are only allowed to cross during the

Signal Timing Manual, 1st Edition

Safety Focused Strategies

Figure 2. Exclusive Pedestrian Phase (Barnes Dance)
exclusive phase.6 Increased pedestrian non-compliance due to the
higher delays because of exclusive pedestrian phase implementation
has also been observed.6
This strategy is best suited for intersections with high volumes
of pedestrians and turning vehicles, at locations where traditional
pedestrian accommodation does not work well. However, costs
associated with this strategy, namely increased delays and non-compliance by pedestrians should be carefully weighed before implementation.

Efficiency Focused Strategies
Short Cycle Lengths
Cycle length in signal timing refers to the time taken for a complete
sequence of signal indications.7 Cycle length is an important signal
timing parameter especially for coordinated signal systems. The
Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) provides an equation to estimate
pedestrian delay based on cycle length and effective green time for
pedestrians.8

Signal Timing Manual, 2nd Edition

delay=

Figure 1. Leading Pedestrian Interval
36

May 2018

i te jo urn al

(C-gwalk)2
2C

Where C = cycle length, gwalk = effective walk time
Research has shown that in general, shorter cycle lengths benefit
pedestrians leading to lower delay.1,4 The provision of shorter cycle
lengths has also been recommended to encourage signal compliance
and increase efficiency. While short cycle lengths reduce pedestrian
delays and vehicular delays for the minor-street phases, delays for
major-street phases may increase due to reduction in green time,
possibly resulting in an overall increase in delay at the intersection.
This strategy is best suited for off-peak and other periods when
vehicular demand is low, yet agencies want their signals to remain in
coordination rather than setting them free, due to agency objectives.
Ideally, this strategy is also applied during peak periods if possible,
as keeping cycle lengths short does typically reduce overall delay.



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ITE Journal May 2018

President’s Message
Director’s Message
People in the Profession
ITE News
ITE, FHWA, and Carmanah Rally to Keep Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacons in Our Safety Toolbox
Improving Arterial Roads to Support Public Health: How Can We Do This?
ITE’s Transportation and Health Initiative
Technical Programs Division Spotlight
Industry News
Calendar
Where in the World?
Member to Member: Jing Zhang, AICP, PTP, LEED AP ND
Countermeasures Prove Effective in Reducing Bicycle Collisions
Guidance on Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians to Improve Walkability
Factors Affecting Vehicle Passing Distance and Encroachments While Overtaking Cyclists
Measuring the Success of Modal Shift: The Impact on Last Mile Connectivity
Professional Services Directory
ITE Journal May 2018 - 1
ITE Journal May 2018 - 2
ITE Journal May 2018 - 3
ITE Journal May 2018 - President’s Message
ITE Journal May 2018 - 5
ITE Journal May 2018 - Director’s Message
ITE Journal May 2018 - 7
ITE Journal May 2018 - People in the Profession
ITE Journal May 2018 - 9
ITE Journal May 2018 - 10
ITE Journal May 2018 - ITE News
ITE Journal May 2018 - ITE, FHWA, and Carmanah Rally to Keep Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacons in Our Safety Toolbox
ITE Journal May 2018 - Improving Arterial Roads to Support Public Health: How Can We Do This?
ITE Journal May 2018 - 14
ITE Journal May 2018 - 15
ITE Journal May 2018 - 16
ITE Journal May 2018 - ITE’s Transportation and Health Initiative
ITE Journal May 2018 - 18
ITE Journal May 2018 - Technical Programs Division Spotlight
ITE Journal May 2018 - Industry News
ITE Journal May 2018 - 21
ITE Journal May 2018 - Where in the World?
ITE Journal May 2018 - 23
ITE Journal May 2018 - 24
ITE Journal May 2018 - 25
ITE Journal May 2018 - 26
ITE Journal May 2018 - Member to Member: Jing Zhang, AICP, PTP, LEED AP ND
ITE Journal May 2018 - 28
ITE Journal May 2018 - Countermeasures Prove Effective in Reducing Bicycle Collisions
ITE Journal May 2018 - 30
ITE Journal May 2018 - 31
ITE Journal May 2018 - 32
ITE Journal May 2018 - 33
ITE Journal May 2018 - 34
ITE Journal May 2018 - Guidance on Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians to Improve Walkability
ITE Journal May 2018 - 36
ITE Journal May 2018 - 37
ITE Journal May 2018 - 38
ITE Journal May 2018 - 39
ITE Journal May 2018 - Factors Affecting Vehicle Passing Distance and Encroachments While Overtaking Cyclists
ITE Journal May 2018 - 41
ITE Journal May 2018 - 42
ITE Journal May 2018 - 43
ITE Journal May 2018 - 44
ITE Journal May 2018 - 45
ITE Journal May 2018 - Measuring the Success of Modal Shift: The Impact on Last Mile Connectivity
ITE Journal May 2018 - 47
ITE Journal May 2018 - 48
ITE Journal May 2018 - 49
ITE Journal May 2018 - Professional Services Directory
ITE Journal May 2018 - 51
ITE Journal May 2018 - 52
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https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G100154_ITE_November2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G99495_ITE_October2018
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