ITE Journal May 2018 - 45

vehicle during a pass. This corroborates other studies that found
adjacent vehicles to be an important factor in determining passing
distance. Parking had a smaller, but significant effect. Relative to
no on street parking, roads that allow cars to park on the side of the
road decreased passing distance. However, parking led to a decrease
in the odds of an encroachment occurring, meaning cyclists and
cars are closer together, but less likely to result in encroachment.

6. Chapman, J. R. and D.A. Noyce. Influence of Roadway Geometric Elements
on Driver Behavior When Overtaking Bicycles on Rural Roads. Journal of
Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English edition), No. 1 (2014): 28-38.
7. Love, D.C., A. Breaud, S. Burns, J. Margulies, M. Romano, and R. Lawrence.
"Is the Three-foot Bicycle Passing Law Working in Baltimore, Maryland?"
Accident Analysis & Prevention, 48 (2012): 451-456. Retrieved from http://
industrializedcyclist.com/baltimorepassing.pdf.

Summary and Conclusions

Josh Pansch is a graduate student at the University
of Minnesota, Humphrey School of Public Affairs. He
concentrates on transportation planning and is
interested in improving the interaction transportation has with the environment. Josh recently joined
SRF as a planner. He received a bachelor's degree in
operations management at the University of St. Thomas.

This study contributes to research on VPD while overtaking
cyclists. Equipment used in this study was effective and can
continue to be used to measure passing distance. The study showed
that overall encroachment rate is low. Key variables explaining
passing distance and encroachment are facility type, vehicle type
(only passing distance), gender, adjacent vehicles, and parking.
Protected or buffered bicycle facilities are best at reducing passing
distance and rate of encroachment, but bike lanes and wide
shoulders also reduce the likelihood of encroachment. Large
vehicles were found to have a lower passing distance and more
encroachments. Results of the study will guide policymakers to
install bicycle infrastructure that creates safe environments for
vehicles and cyclists to coexist. Additional research is needed to
understand how passing distance and a feeling of safety are related
to VPD and encroachment, and how this might lead to additional
ridership. This research confirms that road design and traffic
planning decisions impact how vehicles and cyclists interact

Acknowledgment
This work was the outcome of a partnership with the Pedestrian
and Bicycle Planners at Hennepin County, MN, USA. itej

References
1. Shackel, S. C. and J. Parkin. "Influence of Road Markings, Lane Widths, and
Driver Behaviour on Proximity and Speed of Vehicles Overtaking Cyclists."
Accident Analysis & Prevention, No. 73 (2014): 100-108.
2. Dozza, M., R. Schindler, G. Bianchi-Piccinini, and J. Karlsson. "How Do
Drivers Overtake Cyclists?" Accident Analysis & Prevention, No. 88 (2016):
29-36.
3. Walker, I., I. Garrard, and F. Jowitt. "The Influence of a Bicycle Commuter's
Appearance on Drivers' Overtaking Proximities: an On-road Test of
Bicyclist Stereotypes, High-visibility Clothing and Safety Aids in the
United Kingdom." Accident Analysis & Prevention, No. 64 (2014): 69-77.
4. Stipancic, J., S. Zangenehpour, L. Miranda-Moreno, N. Saunier, and M.A.
Granie. "Investigating the Gender Differences on Bicycle-vehicle Conflicts
at Urban Intersections Using an Ordered Logit Methodology." Accident
Analysis & Prevention, No. 97 (2016): 19-27.
5. LaMondia, J. J. and J.C. Duthie. "An Ordered Probit Regression Analysis of
Factors Influencing 5 Bicycle-Vehicle Interactions on Urban Roadways 6."
91st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board: 2012.

Isaac Evans is a master's of public policy student at
the Humphrey School of Public Affairs, focusing his
studies on energy policy and sustainable development. At the Humphrey School he works with Dr.
Chan analyzing how the financial benefits of
community solar in Minnesota and how to better
incorporate low and moderate-income ratepayers into community
solar programs. Isaac also currently interns with Minnesota
Brownfields researching issues related to soil reuse and the intersection of brownfield redevelopment and climate smart growth.
Lila Singer-Berk is a master's candidate at the
Humphrey School of Public Affairs at the University
of Minnesota Twin Cities. Her research and
academic interests lie in the area of active transportation planning and particularly bicycle and
pedestrian counting. Her previous experience
includes working as a research assistant with Professor Greg Lindsey
at the University of Minnesota Humphrey School of Public Affairs
and interning with Cambridge Systematics in Los Angeles, CA, USA.
As of July 2018, Lila will be working as a transportation analyst
with Cambridge Systematics.
Greg Lindsey, Ph.D. is a professor at the Hubert H.
Humphrey School of Public Affairs at the University
of Minnesota. He specializes in transportation and
environmental planning and management. His
current projects involve analyses of non-motorized
transportation, and he is principal investigator for
several projects for the Minnesota Department of Transportation. 
Dr. Lindsey earned his doctorate and a master's degree from the
Department of Geography and Environmental Engineering at the
Johns Hopkins University. 
w w w .i t e.o r g

May 2018

45


http://www.industrializedcyclist.com/baltimorepassing.pdf http://www.industrializedcyclist.com/baltimorepassing.pdf http://www.ite.org

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ITE Journal May 2018

President’s Message
Director’s Message
People in the Profession
ITE News
ITE, FHWA, and Carmanah Rally to Keep Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacons in Our Safety Toolbox
Improving Arterial Roads to Support Public Health: How Can We Do This?
ITE’s Transportation and Health Initiative
Technical Programs Division Spotlight
Industry News
Calendar
Where in the World?
Member to Member: Jing Zhang, AICP, PTP, LEED AP ND
Countermeasures Prove Effective in Reducing Bicycle Collisions
Guidance on Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians to Improve Walkability
Factors Affecting Vehicle Passing Distance and Encroachments While Overtaking Cyclists
Measuring the Success of Modal Shift: The Impact on Last Mile Connectivity
Professional Services Directory
ITE Journal May 2018 - 1
ITE Journal May 2018 - 2
ITE Journal May 2018 - 3
ITE Journal May 2018 - President’s Message
ITE Journal May 2018 - 5
ITE Journal May 2018 - Director’s Message
ITE Journal May 2018 - 7
ITE Journal May 2018 - People in the Profession
ITE Journal May 2018 - 9
ITE Journal May 2018 - 10
ITE Journal May 2018 - ITE News
ITE Journal May 2018 - ITE, FHWA, and Carmanah Rally to Keep Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacons in Our Safety Toolbox
ITE Journal May 2018 - Improving Arterial Roads to Support Public Health: How Can We Do This?
ITE Journal May 2018 - 14
ITE Journal May 2018 - 15
ITE Journal May 2018 - 16
ITE Journal May 2018 - ITE’s Transportation and Health Initiative
ITE Journal May 2018 - 18
ITE Journal May 2018 - Technical Programs Division Spotlight
ITE Journal May 2018 - Industry News
ITE Journal May 2018 - 21
ITE Journal May 2018 - Where in the World?
ITE Journal May 2018 - 23
ITE Journal May 2018 - 24
ITE Journal May 2018 - 25
ITE Journal May 2018 - 26
ITE Journal May 2018 - Member to Member: Jing Zhang, AICP, PTP, LEED AP ND
ITE Journal May 2018 - 28
ITE Journal May 2018 - Countermeasures Prove Effective in Reducing Bicycle Collisions
ITE Journal May 2018 - 30
ITE Journal May 2018 - 31
ITE Journal May 2018 - 32
ITE Journal May 2018 - 33
ITE Journal May 2018 - 34
ITE Journal May 2018 - Guidance on Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians to Improve Walkability
ITE Journal May 2018 - 36
ITE Journal May 2018 - 37
ITE Journal May 2018 - 38
ITE Journal May 2018 - 39
ITE Journal May 2018 - Factors Affecting Vehicle Passing Distance and Encroachments While Overtaking Cyclists
ITE Journal May 2018 - 41
ITE Journal May 2018 - 42
ITE Journal May 2018 - 43
ITE Journal May 2018 - 44
ITE Journal May 2018 - 45
ITE Journal May 2018 - Measuring the Success of Modal Shift: The Impact on Last Mile Connectivity
ITE Journal May 2018 - 47
ITE Journal May 2018 - 48
ITE Journal May 2018 - 49
ITE Journal May 2018 - Professional Services Directory
ITE Journal May 2018 - 51
ITE Journal May 2018 - 52
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