ITE Journal May 2018 - 48

better show the effects of mobility programs on accessibility,
connectivity, economic development, the environment, and
public health and safety.

Case Study: Public Transit and Transportation Demand
Management in North Carolina
Partnerships between the North Carolina Department of Transportation and local governments, regional authorities, and other
state agencies have been the source of North Carolina's transit
success. As evidence of these partnerships, transportation demand
management (TDM) programs have been operating in North
Carolina for more than a decade.
In 1999, the Ambient Air Quality Improvement Act (Senate
Bill 953) targeted a 25-percent reduction in the growth of
commuter VMT by July 1, 2009. North Carolina surpassed this
goal by reducing the growth of commuter VMT by 25.2 percent.
To make this accomplishment possible, the North Carolina
Department of Transportation (NCDOT) Public Transportation
Division expanded its TDM program. In 2004, NCDOT initiated
funding to local TDM programs, awarding 50 percent of their
administrative costs.
According to complete 2016 figures, the projected growth of
commuter VMT has been reduced by 27.8 percent (see Figure 1).
This reduction in growth is calculated annually based on commuter
trips via public transit, light rail, vanpools, and carpools.
Figure 1. Percent Statewide Reduction in Vehicle Miles Traveled in
North Carolina.
Year

Reduction in VMT (%)

2007

24

2008

24.6

2009

25.2

2010

25.4

2011

25.7

2012

25.5

2013

25.9

2014

26.3

2015

26.3

2016

27.8

From 2000 to 2016, with commuters using carpools, vanpools,
and transit, daily commuter VMT increased to 28.19 million. If
commuter trips had not been accommodated using alternative
modes of transportation, daily commuter VMT during this time
frame would have increased by 35.59 million. This represents a 26.1
percent reduction in projected growth of commuter VMT. This
report period saw an increase in the amount of carpool and vanpool
48

May 2018

i te jo urn al

participation across the state, providing further proof that TDM
measures are successfully lowering VMT.
To reduce VMT, TDM programs have held commuter
challenges, created programs enabling employees of certain
organizations to ride public transit for free or at a reduced rate and
provided information to commuters about alternative commuting.
These programs also promote North Carolina's rideshare matching
program, ShareTheRideNC, a web-based platform that allows
commuters to identify potential carpool partners and open
vanpool seats.
TDM's initiatives have increased the efficiency of the transportation system by focusing on travel demand instead of supply. They
have worked to modify travel behaviors and effectively addressed
a variety of transportation issues while providing economic,
social, and environmental benefits. Continued success will
require improved coordination of services and further emphasis
on communicating the multiple benefits of alternatives to the
single-occupancy vehicle commute.

Reframing Metrics for Performance Enhancement
The development of last mile connectivity strategies emerges out
of a recognized need for better surface transportation system
performance while reducing the negative externalities associated
with unimpeded travel growth. Presently, most metropolitan areas
in the United States implement TDM as a mobility service, with
limited expectations regarding the performance of the strategies
as they relate to last mile connectivity. The usefulness of static
marketing and modal promotion as conditions change over time is
rarely called into question, and economic changes influencing travel
demand aren't wholly considered. Typically, years go by before
plans and strategies are changed to suit the current market. Even as
more and more jurisdictions embrace strategies to shift modes of
transportation as a complement to infrastructure oriented projects,
metrics for evaluating the performance of programs has lagged.
A cost/benefit analysis-driven approach for measuring
traditional and enhanced indicators of success can more accurately
assess the distribution of funds to improve efficiencies and enhance
existing efforts. Measures of effectiveness are oriented towards
providing clarity and uniformity across programs that work to
shift modes. To accomplish this, each measure requires sufficient
definition so as to provide a high degree of certainty that the
measure is accurate as calculated. In North Carolina, the 2018
Statewide TDM Strategic Plan Update has outlined enhanced
performance metrics though a comparison between "traditional"
and "enhanced" measures.
Traditional TDM measures emphasize objectives that have
been core to the North Carolina TDM Program for the past two
decades-primarily, improving air quality, and reducing congestion.
Key measures of effectiveness for air quality included air emission



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ITE Journal May 2018

President’s Message
Director’s Message
People in the Profession
ITE News
ITE, FHWA, and Carmanah Rally to Keep Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacons in Our Safety Toolbox
Improving Arterial Roads to Support Public Health: How Can We Do This?
ITE’s Transportation and Health Initiative
Technical Programs Division Spotlight
Industry News
Calendar
Where in the World?
Member to Member: Jing Zhang, AICP, PTP, LEED AP ND
Countermeasures Prove Effective in Reducing Bicycle Collisions
Guidance on Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians to Improve Walkability
Factors Affecting Vehicle Passing Distance and Encroachments While Overtaking Cyclists
Measuring the Success of Modal Shift: The Impact on Last Mile Connectivity
Professional Services Directory
ITE Journal May 2018 - 1
ITE Journal May 2018 - 2
ITE Journal May 2018 - 3
ITE Journal May 2018 - President’s Message
ITE Journal May 2018 - 5
ITE Journal May 2018 - Director’s Message
ITE Journal May 2018 - 7
ITE Journal May 2018 - People in the Profession
ITE Journal May 2018 - 9
ITE Journal May 2018 - 10
ITE Journal May 2018 - ITE News
ITE Journal May 2018 - ITE, FHWA, and Carmanah Rally to Keep Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacons in Our Safety Toolbox
ITE Journal May 2018 - Improving Arterial Roads to Support Public Health: How Can We Do This?
ITE Journal May 2018 - 14
ITE Journal May 2018 - 15
ITE Journal May 2018 - 16
ITE Journal May 2018 - ITE’s Transportation and Health Initiative
ITE Journal May 2018 - 18
ITE Journal May 2018 - Technical Programs Division Spotlight
ITE Journal May 2018 - Industry News
ITE Journal May 2018 - 21
ITE Journal May 2018 - Where in the World?
ITE Journal May 2018 - 23
ITE Journal May 2018 - 24
ITE Journal May 2018 - 25
ITE Journal May 2018 - 26
ITE Journal May 2018 - Member to Member: Jing Zhang, AICP, PTP, LEED AP ND
ITE Journal May 2018 - 28
ITE Journal May 2018 - Countermeasures Prove Effective in Reducing Bicycle Collisions
ITE Journal May 2018 - 30
ITE Journal May 2018 - 31
ITE Journal May 2018 - 32
ITE Journal May 2018 - 33
ITE Journal May 2018 - 34
ITE Journal May 2018 - Guidance on Signal Control Strategies for Pedestrians to Improve Walkability
ITE Journal May 2018 - 36
ITE Journal May 2018 - 37
ITE Journal May 2018 - 38
ITE Journal May 2018 - 39
ITE Journal May 2018 - Factors Affecting Vehicle Passing Distance and Encroachments While Overtaking Cyclists
ITE Journal May 2018 - 41
ITE Journal May 2018 - 42
ITE Journal May 2018 - 43
ITE Journal May 2018 - 44
ITE Journal May 2018 - 45
ITE Journal May 2018 - Measuring the Success of Modal Shift: The Impact on Last Mile Connectivity
ITE Journal May 2018 - 47
ITE Journal May 2018 - 48
ITE Journal May 2018 - 49
ITE Journal May 2018 - Professional Services Directory
ITE Journal May 2018 - 51
ITE Journal May 2018 - 52
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