ITE Journal July 2018 - 46

H

uman trafficking is a global epidemic. Most recent estimates suggest that
some 40 million people are exploited worldwide.1,2,3,4 In the United States

alone trafficking cases have been identified in every state in the Union. In
2000, the United Nations set forth the most contemporary description of

trafficking under the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially
Women and Children known as the Palermo Protocol.5 The United States followed suit later in
2000 by passing legislation that would become known as the Trafficking Victims Protection Act
(TVPA). It was reauthorized in 2003 and again in 2013. Section 103{8} of the original TVPA
defines trafficking as follows:
"The recruitment, harboring, transporting, provision or
obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use
of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to
involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, slavery or forced
commercial sex acts." 6
Additionally, the exploitation of a minor in any of the
above forms, regardless of whether or not force was involved, is
considered trafficking in persons. The two most common forms of
human trafficking are forced labor and sex trafficking. The travel
typically associated with forced labor is intended to get victims to
job locations for fixed amounts of time. Whereas, sex trafficking
is typically more mobile.7,8,9,10,11 Both forms of trafficking have
similar victim experiences including document fraud and or
withholding of identification documents and restrictive travel and
movements.12 These are very specific examples of how travel and
travel experiences intersect with the victimization experiences in
both sex and labor trafficking.

Trafficking and Transportation
Modern day human trafficking is thought to originate with the
Age of Steam in the latter half of the nineteenth century that
allowed unprecedented speed and ease of travel by trains and
steamships. Indeed, some of the earliest forms of human trafficking
prevention came in what is called the 1904 Agreement wherein staff
at railway stations and ports were required to watch for women and
girls involved in prostitution.13
Figure 1, adapted from Zimmerman et al., suggests a model of
the human trafficking process in which they assert that the "travel
and transit" phase is one of the most significant stages for interven46

J ul y 2018

i te jo urn al

tion in order to reduce trauma and other health risks for victims.14 
Indeed, they explicitly note how well-informed transportation
professionals may be an important component in primary detection
and prevention activities in this stage.

Figure 1. Model of human trafficking stages.
Different components of the transportation system, including
the airlines and public transportation, play various roles in
trafficking. The overwhelming majority of human trafficking in
the U.S., however, occurs on roadways, much of it on the Interstate
Highway System.15,16 Interstate 20, particularly the portion between
Birmingham, Alabama and Atlanta, Georgia is known as the "Sex
Trafficking Superhighway" as more people were recently reported
being trafficked along this section of road than anywhere else in the
United States.17 And while Interstates are used to traffic the majority
of victims, they also often serve as the marketplace as a substantial
amount of activity, primarily sex-related, occurs at truck stops and
rest areas.18,19,20



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ITE Journal July 2018

ITE Journal July 2018 - Cover1
ITE Journal July 2018 - Cover2
ITE Journal July 2018 - 3
ITE Journal July 2018 - 4
ITE Journal July 2018 - 5
ITE Journal July 2018 - 6
ITE Journal July 2018 - 7
ITE Journal July 2018 - 8
ITE Journal July 2018 - 9
ITE Journal July 2018 - 10
ITE Journal July 2018 - 11
ITE Journal July 2018 - 12
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ITE Journal July 2018 - 27
ITE Journal July 2018 - 28
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ITE Journal July 2018 - 33
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ITE Journal July 2018 - 40
ITE Journal July 2018 - 41
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ITE Journal July 2018 - 45
ITE Journal July 2018 - 46
ITE Journal July 2018 - 47
ITE Journal July 2018 - 48
ITE Journal July 2018 - 49
ITE Journal July 2018 - 50
ITE Journal July 2018 - Cover3
ITE Journal July 2018 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/ite-journal-july-2021
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https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/ITE_Mar2021
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https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/ITE_December2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G110939_ITE_November2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G110110_ITE_October2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G110109_ITE_September2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G108559_ITE_August2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G108250_ITE_July2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G107225_ITE_June2019
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https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G103582_ITE_February2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G102868_ITE_January2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G100155_ITE_December2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G100154_ITE_November2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G99495_ITE_October2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G98028_ITE_September2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G97366_ITE_August2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G96287_ITE_July2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G94315_ITE_June2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G93877_ITE_May2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G93065_ITE_Apr2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G91484_ITE_Mar2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G89434_ITE_Feb2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G86608_ITE_Jan2018
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