ITE Journal - April 2020 - 34

Opportunity Costs. Not adopting the transportation
technologies could set the organization behind both in time and
innovation. The organization may face significant challenges in the
future with higher costs and a need for significant infrastructure
upgrades.
Workforce Development. The new and incoming professional
staff are not only interested in but are also able to incorporate
technological advancements into their day-to-day job functions.
Not adopting the transportation technologies could discourage the
younger workforce from proposing any innovative ideas and over
a period of time, the organization could lose competitiveness and
residual capabilities.
Forward-thinking leaders keenly observe their organizations
top-down and bottom-up, identify the champions, provide them
the necessary resources and support, encourage ideation and
technology adoption spurred by these champions, innovate with
the industry recognized by the champions, and begin institutionalizing such thought leadership.
Institutionalization, just as with individualization, has its
own set of strengths and weaknesses. In particular, this leads to
sustainability and building strong technology organizations, which
last beyond the tenures of the leaders and the said champions.
Technology adoption, especially with many IOOs seeking to
leverage it for the safety and mobility gains, needs to continue
un-impeded, for which a long-term perspective is essential.
Institutionalization, as opposed to individualization, is about the
only way to provide confidence to the industry for partaking in
discussions to consider advancements, adopt technologies, conceptualize programs, and deploy projects to fulfill the organization's
vision, mission, and objectives. It is worth observing that good
institutions in fact emerge from established champions.

Innovative Portfolio Development
Capturing the vision of an organization and translating its mission
into an implementable portfolio of programs and projects, with a
feasible work breakdown structure that incorporates transportation technologies, is essential to developing sustainable safety- and
mobility-centric CAV programs. Several organizations, IOOs
for example, have embarked on developing strategic plans for
their TSMO programs. Pivotal to success are garnering financial
support; mainstreaming the programs across disciplines and
divisions internal and external to the organization; and designing,
developing, and deploying TSMO and ITS initiatives. Organizations may repeat this process to launch their emerging technology
portfolio of CAV programs and projects. Entities that have already
been participating in the AASHTO SPaT challenge, deploying the
USDOT JPO pilot projects, and implementing their respective state
and local funded projects have all developed ingenious ways that
are specific to their respective organizations. In Florida, USA for
34

Apri l 2020

i te j o urn al

instance, the SPaT-only deployment in Tallahassee was followed by
the Gainesville SPaT project which included other CAV applications such as motorist-to-pedestrian communication, passenger
collision warning, emergency vehicle preemption, etc. This was
followed by incorporating RSUs with both dedicated short range
communications (DSRC) (an open-source protocol for wireless
communications) and cellular-vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X)
(which uses cellular connectivity to facilitate communication to
and from vehicles) capabilities in Pinellas County, FL. Ingenuity
could extend in several directions including technical elements and
process orientation. While the DSRC alongside C-V2X communication modes were considered in the Pinellas County SPaT project,
the Gainesville experience showed that innovative procurement
approaches should be explored despite the legacy procurement
protocols at public agencies.
Engaging with the transportation industry is a crucial factor
for a successful implementation of CAV applications. IOOs exist
to serve the people and all road users, and are therefore intimately
familiar with the functional needs of any technology system.
Industry, on the other hand, develops commercial solutions and
contributes the technical know-how and the intellectual capital
with equipment and sensor capabilities to realize the safety and
mobility goals of the public entities. Therefore, the emerging
technology portfolio development strategies should consider
several stakeholders including the industry and the research
community to fully capitalize the public-private process, program,
and project partnerships with connectivity; yet, such connectivity
among infrastructure, vehicles, and all modes should remain
seamless because the real required outcome is the reduction in
traffic crashes, relief in traffic congestion, promoting commerce,
and improving the environment.
Development of the vision, mission, and objectives by the
agency leadership followed by program development by the senior
executives and a well-defined array of projects by technical experts
eventually leads to a structured project management implementation framework. While several standard approaches exist, the
10 knowledge areas and the five process groups proposed by the
Project Management Institute (PMI) in the Project Management
Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) can help the practitioner to
conceptualize CAV initiatives from concept to concrete. Given
that the shelf-life of technology in the modern era is extremely
short, and new market players emerge or purge all the time, the
project management lifecycle should be agile. The project manager
should strive to expedite the development and delivery of the CAV
program goals while striking a balance between resources, budget,
time, and any other considerations. Both systems engineering
and agile approaches can help achieve this. Ingenious portfolio
development should also account for the leadership to be keenly
aware of the challenges faced by the CAV program staff and



ITE Journal - April 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ITE Journal - April 2020

ITE Journal - April 2020 - Cover1
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