ITE Journal - April 2020 - 35

implementing stakeholders. If the goal is to realize the safety and
mobility outcomes with available technologies, their primary task
is to remove hurdles.

Infrastructure Readiness
In empirical terms, only a small percentage of the signalized
intersections in the United States use advanced transportation
controllers (ATCs). ATC units have modern processors and
memory and they are also designed to be updated in the future
should further processing power be necessary. An even smaller
percentage of these ATC units are running ATC API software.
The API software allows multiple applications to run concurrently
on a single ATC unit and these applications may be provided by
different vendors. It is this type of infrastructure that gives IOOs
the most choices in deploying CAV as well as any potential field
deployed applications whether they be traffic related, smart city
applications, multimodal applications, security, and many others.
For instance, the function of the RSU could be performed by an
application program on an ATC unit with API software instead
of a separate box in the cabinet. While it is conceivable that late
pre-ATC transportation controllers could be enhanced to perform
SPaT messaging, it is unlikely that manufacturers will modify
pre-ATC software to perform this function.
Multiple modes, especially non-motorized, are present on
arterials and at both signalized and unsignalized intersections;
hence the need to evaluate infrastructure and its capabilities.
Organizations wanting to implement their CAV programs should
consider readiness studies with a specific intent to evaluate their
roadway assets including the make, model, and version of their
traffic signal controllers and the firmware on the arterial network.
As discussed earlier, the ITS infrastructure on the freeway network
provides an important readiness-framework for CAV projects.
However, gaps exist, particularly in municipalities, and should be
considered as a part of the infrastructure-readiness evaluation.
An often-discussed item of interest to the IOOs and the
industry, in particular the OEMs, is signing and pavement
markings (S&PM). While the concept of barcodes and radio
frequency identification (RFID) is being explored for machine
readability of traffic signs, a greater interest lies in recognizing the
pavement markings and the contrast features as good or better
than the human eye from a machine readability standpoint. These
aspects are typically categorized under automated driving system
(ADS), and need significant collaboration among IOOs, OEMs,
data brokers, S&PM innovators, and scientists, and researchers.
The interdisciplinary and cross-functional nature of this work
requires a full-scale understanding of the assets in place and the
use of associated technologies such as light detection and ranging
(LiDAR), radio detection and ranging (RADAR), global positioning
system (GPS), etc. While deployments are primarily implemen-

tation-centric, the infrastructure-readiness exercise should not
ignore the future systems and policy planning objectives of an
organization. For instance, the medium- and large-scale green
projects, both in terms of budget and scale, should include the
latest technology elements to maximize vehicle throughput (i.e.,
capacity), and safety benefits.
Infrastructure-readiness is also intricately connected to
program funding. Traffic signal controller upgrades alone, for
example, can cost an agency millions of dollars. Furthermore,
other direct costs constitute the provision for a security credential
management system (SCMS) and ancillary software and firmware
upgrades. Indirect costs such as those for training and workforce
development should also be factored in. Adding CAV devices
such as the RSUs may not require structural recalculations or
adjustments to the mast arms or span wires, but will require an
in-depth understanding if more devices are added to the physical
infrastructure. Similarly, the available space within a controller
cabinet and the firmware upgrade provisions should be considered.
Many other such aspects related to the various ITS field devices
and design features should also be evaluated.
The concern at this time is that known infrastructure improvements necessary for CAV readiness are not being addressed.
New requirements and specifications should be developed at the
planning levels of local and regional agencies. Otherwise, agencies
will continue to purchase what they have always purchased. In the
United States today, the majority of agencies are still buying new
traffic controller units based on decades-old technology.

Implementation
The pinnacle of any program is the realization of safety and
mobility benefits, neither of which can be accomplished without
field implementation and maintenance of projects, emerging
technologies, and CAV applications. Agencies may develop
comprehensive programs based on sound planning, resource
provisions, and sustainable funding approaches. If the implementation mechanism is not streamlined or if it is not timely, the
organizational and project objectives will not be met. Therefore,
the implementation of emerging technologies requires the
involvement and commitment of senior leadership just as the need
for technical capabilities of implementation staff and the relevant
consultant support. Branding CAV programs for public knowledge
and acceptability and for funding justification to expand the
technology platform require that the IOOs partner with the
industry and key stakeholders such as local agencies. Program and
project implementation alone is the way to learn the lessons from
the deployed projects and to build a road map with subsequent
projects that add value to the previous initiatives or to modify
them as necessary. Some IOOs found much success in pursuing
research and development avenues not only with academic
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