ITE Journal – December 2019 - 40

The logic statements will work when the intersection is running
in coordination, uncoordinated, or a combination of the two.
This methodology was created for possible future implementation
of traffic responsive signal systems at intersections where the
programming/coding exists. The logic statements follow a detector
and emergency vehicle preemption guideline and is only intersection specific because of the detector settings programmed in the
controller. All of the logic statements are available upon request.

For all days being analyzed, the timeframe from 6:00 a.m.-
7:00 p.m. was used. Traffic volumes outside this timeframe are
considered low for this intersection. Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and
Thursdays were analyzed to represent true traffic conditions during
the week. Each peak period is broken up into the following;
1. AM Peak: 6:00 a.m.-9:00 a.m. - 90 sec. cycle length
2. MID Peak: 9:00 a.m.-3:00 p.m. - 80 sec. cycle length
3. PM Peak: 3:00 p.m.-7:00 p.m. - 100 sec. cycle length

Detector Programming

In the delay analysis, delay reduction for dynamic flashing yellow
arrow operations (both in hours and percent) along with average
delay reduction for dynamic flashing yellow arrow operations are the
main measures of effectiveness. When always operating protected
only, the average delay acquired when the dynamic flashing yellow
arrow approach was operating protected only was used. The
equations used for each scenario are listed below:

To accomplish overall efficiency for the mainline and left turns,
four different detector plans were developed to meet the following
conditions:
1. Northbound and southbound left turns are protected only;
2. Northbound left turn is protected only and southbound left turn
is operating with a flashing yellow arrow;
3. Northbound left turn is operating with a flashing yellow arrow
and southbound left turn is protected only; and
4. Northbound and southbound left turns are operating with a
flashing yellow arrow.
Figure 1 shows two multiple vehicle detection zones per lane for
each of the northbound and southbound left turns. When the left
turn operation is protected only, the controller is using the stopbar
detection. When the left turn is running with the flashing yellow
arrow, it is using the setback detection (detectors 15, 16, 55, and 56
in Figure 1), which allows the controller to use protected/permitted
operations or permitted only operations, depending on the number
of vehicles queued.

Emergency Vehicle Preemption Programming
To operate the emergency vehicle preemption (EVP), 10 EVP plans
were created. The EVP plans follow the same conditions in the
detector programming, each condition having two EVP plans for
the mainline and two EVP plans for the side street.
In the EVP programming, the important concept is the flashing
yellow arrow programming, and how the controller can exit from
a left turn green indication (for example an EVP dwell in phases 1
and 6, then exiting EVP to phases 2 and 6). The inputs from the field
remain unchanged. Instead, the inputs of the controller are rerouted
to the correct EVP plan for the correct condition.

Analysis of Left Turn Operations
The analysis of left turn operations focused on two main principles:
1. How often the northbound and southbound dual left turns are
operating protected only versus operating with a flashing yellow
arrow, and
2. Average delay reduction as it relates to operating the signal
protected only all day.
40

D ecem ber 2019

i t e jo u rn al

-[VolPROT(Avg DelayPROT) + VolFYA(Avg DelayFYA) - VolAPROT(Avg DelayAPROT)]
Delay ReductionFYA = ---------------------------------
3600

Where,
Delay ReductionFYA: Total delay reduction in hours utilizing the
dynamic flashing yellow arrow methodology
VolPROT: Volume of the left turn when operating protected only
Avg DelayPROT: Average delay of the left turn when operating
protected only
VolFYA: Volume of the left turn when operating with a flashing
yellow arrow
Avg DelayFYA: Average delay of the left turn when operating with
a flashing yellow arrow
VolAPROT: Volume of the left turn if the left turn was running
protected only the entire duration of the peak period.
Avg DelayAPROT: Average delay of the left turn if the left turn
was running protected only the entire duration of the
peak period

[

]

VolAPROT(Avg DelayAPROT)
------------- - Delay ReductionFYA
3600
Delay ReductionFYA(%) = ---------------------------------- (100)
VolAPROT(Avg DelayAPROT)
-------------
3600

[

]

Where,
Delay ReductionFYA(%): Percent delay reduction utilizing the
dynamic flashing yellow arrow methodology

[

]

VolPROT
VolFYA
Avg Delay ReductionFYA = Avg DelayPROT - -------(Avg DelayPROT) + -------(Avg DelayFYA)
VolPROT + VolFYA
VolPROT + VolFYA

Where,
Avg Delay ReductionFYA: Weighted average delay reduction
utilizing the dynamic flashing yellow arrow methodology



ITE Journal – December 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ITE Journal – December 2019

President’s Message
Director’s Message
People in the Profession
ITE News
10th Annual ITE Collegiate Traffic Bowl Grand Championship Tournament Recap
Board Committee: Women of ITE: Allies in Design and in the Workplace
Member to Member: Ariel Farnsworth (M)
Calendar
Where in the World?
Industry News
ITE 2019 Year in Review
Impacts of Red-Light Cameras on Intersection Safety: A Bayesian Hierarchical Spatial Model
Dynamic Flashing Yellow Arrow Operations
Advisory Bike Lanes and Shoulders: Current Status and Future Possibilities
Professional Services Directory
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 1
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 2
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 3
ITE Journal – December 2019 - President’s Message
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 5
ITE Journal – December 2019 - Director’s Message
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 7
ITE Journal – December 2019 - People in the Profession
ITE Journal – December 2019 - ITE News
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 10
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 11
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 12
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 13
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 10th Annual ITE Collegiate Traffic Bowl Grand Championship Tournament Recap
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 15
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 16
ITE Journal – December 2019 - Board Committee: Women of ITE: Allies in Design and in the Workplace
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 18
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 19
ITE Journal – December 2019 - Member to Member: Ariel Farnsworth (M)
ITE Journal – December 2019 - Where in the World?
ITE Journal – December 2019 - Industry News
ITE Journal – December 2019 - ITE 2019 Year in Review
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 24
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 25
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 26
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 27
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 28
ITE Journal – December 2019 - Impacts of Red-Light Cameras on Intersection Safety: A Bayesian Hierarchical Spatial Model
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 30
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 31
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 32
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 33
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 34
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 35
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 36
ITE Journal – December 2019 - Dynamic Flashing Yellow Arrow Operations
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 38
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 39
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 40
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 41
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 42
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 43
ITE Journal – December 2019 - Advisory Bike Lanes and Shoulders: Current Status and Future Possibilities
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 45
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 46
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 47
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 48
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 49
ITE Journal – December 2019 - Professional Services Directory
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 51
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 52
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