ITE Journal – December 2019 - 47

Yarmouth, ME
Minneapolis, MN
Mankato, MN
Cambridge, MA (removed)
Minneapolis, MN
Lorain, OH
Ottawa, ON
Chicago, IL
Chicago, IL
Edina, MN
Hanover, NH
Minneapolis, MN
Sandpoint, ID
Alexandria, VA
Boulder, CO
Burlington, VT
Cambridge, MA
Lorain, OH
Bloomington, IN
Minneapolis, MN
Minneapolis, MN
Yarmouth, ME
Lorain, OH
Hailey, ID
Minneapolis, MN
Grand Rapids, MI
Scarborough, ME
Edina, MN (removed)

Location

Lane Widths (feet)

35

bicycles during passing movements saw excellent results. All, or an
overwhelming majority of, passing movements showed distances of
more than 3 ft.
The most notable result of this collection of studies is the
absence of problems which many fear when they consider the use of
ELRs. These studies document no head-on vehicle collisions and no
safety problems due to a misunderstanding of the road's operation.

2XEdge Lane Width
Center Lane Width

30
25
20
15
10

0

Cambridge, MA
Cambridge, MA (removed)
Hanover, NH
Yarmouth, ME
Ottawa, ON
Edina, MN
Scarborough, ME
Boulder, CO
Hailey, ID
Chicago, IL
Chicago, IL
Mankato, MN
Minneapolis, MN
Minneapolis, MN
Lorain, OH
Lorain, OH
Alexandria, VA
Bloomington, IN
Burlington, VT
Edina, MN (removed)
Grand Rapids, MI
Yarmouth, ME
Minneapolis, MN
Lorain, OH
Minneapolis, MN
Minneapolis, MN
Sandpoint, ID
Minneapolis, MN

5

Table 1. Summary of ELR evaluation studies.
ELR Study

Location

Figure 6. ELR lane widths.
the center lane. This provides the opportunity to create edge lanes
wide enough to safely support side-by-side riding, bicycle-bicycle
passing, and bicycle-pedestrian passing. Narrow center lanes also
have the potential to induce traffic calming.

Use of the FHWA Request to Experiment Process
Of the 16 independent U.S. agencies which have installed ELRs,
seven chose not to use the FHWA RTE process. Reasons for not
using the RTE process vary. Some states have sovereign immunity
laws which protect local agencies from legal attack; this nullifies the
greatest benefit of an approved RTE application. Some agencies were
unaware of the RTE process or the experimental status of ELRs.
The lack of awareness of the RTE process and ELR's experimental status may point to a need for more education in this area. There
are a lack of data from ELRs installed outside this process.
A number of conversations with individuals across the nation
have described significant resistance to the ELR concept due to its
experimental status. Unfortunately, data is unavailable on the safety
costs of facilities which are not installed.

Safety
One of the most common concerns with ELRs is their safety.
Because 16 studies are often dismissed, only North American
findings are presented here. Six North American installations
have been studied and have results which are publicly available. A
summary of these studies is shown in Table 1.
Generally, following the installation of an ELR the studies found:
ƒ a reduction or no change in crash rate,
ƒ a reduction or no change in motor vehicle speed,
ƒ a reduction or no change in motor vehicle volume, and
ƒ mixed results with respect to bicycle volume changes.
All of the agencies responsible for these studies concluded that
the ELRs were safe and operating as intended. The five studies
which evaluated horizontal distance between motor vehicles and

Harvard Lane
Boulder, CO, USA5
Lakeview Avenue
Cambridge, MA, USA6
West 54th Street
Edina, MN, USA7
Valley Road
Hanover, NH, USA8,9,10
Grant St/14th Street East
Minneapolis, MN, USA11
Somerset Street East
Ottawa, ON, Canada12

Post-ELR Changes
Vehicle
Vehicle
Speed
Volume
Decrease
None
?

Bicycle Crash
Volume Rate
Decrease
None
?

None

None

-

-

1-3 mph
(1.6-4.8
km/hr)
reduction

-

-

None

Decrease
?
Mixed
?

Increase
?
Mixed
?

-
None

5.2 percent
-
reduction

-

None
Decrease
-

? = Unclear if changes were statistically significant
- = Study did not address this issue or complete data was not available

If one multiplies each ELR's number of service days by its
ADT and sums over all of the ELRs, we generate an estimate of
87.8 million vehicle trips on ELRs as of October 1, 2019. The lack
of safety issues across a base of this size, with 60,500 vehicle trips
being added every day, is a credible indicator that this road format
works as well in North America as it does elsewhere in the world.

Future Application of ELRs
At this point, ELRs are primarily applied on streets too narrow for
standard bike lanes in urban and suburban areas. But ELRs have
the potential to provide benefits in other settings.

An Alternative to Door-Zone-Bicycle-Lanes
The view of ELRs as a mechanism for providing bicycle facilities only
when road width is insufficient for standard bike lanes is inaccurate.
In some situations, ELRs can provide greater horizontal separation
between bicyclists and vehicles than standard bicycle lanes.
The accepted practice of placing standard bicycle lanes on roads
between on-street parking and vehicle travel lanes provides little
margin for error when vehicle doors, pedestrians, garbage cans, etc.,
occlude the bike lane, and force cyclists into the travel lane. These
w w w .i t e.or g

D e cember 2019

47


http://www.ite.org

ITE Journal – December 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ITE Journal – December 2019

President’s Message
Director’s Message
People in the Profession
ITE News
10th Annual ITE Collegiate Traffic Bowl Grand Championship Tournament Recap
Board Committee: Women of ITE: Allies in Design and in the Workplace
Member to Member: Ariel Farnsworth (M)
Calendar
Where in the World?
Industry News
ITE 2019 Year in Review
Impacts of Red-Light Cameras on Intersection Safety: A Bayesian Hierarchical Spatial Model
Dynamic Flashing Yellow Arrow Operations
Advisory Bike Lanes and Shoulders: Current Status and Future Possibilities
Professional Services Directory
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 1
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 2
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 3
ITE Journal – December 2019 - President’s Message
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 5
ITE Journal – December 2019 - Director’s Message
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 7
ITE Journal – December 2019 - People in the Profession
ITE Journal – December 2019 - ITE News
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 10
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 11
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 12
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 13
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 10th Annual ITE Collegiate Traffic Bowl Grand Championship Tournament Recap
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 15
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 16
ITE Journal – December 2019 - Board Committee: Women of ITE: Allies in Design and in the Workplace
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 18
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 19
ITE Journal – December 2019 - Member to Member: Ariel Farnsworth (M)
ITE Journal – December 2019 - Where in the World?
ITE Journal – December 2019 - Industry News
ITE Journal – December 2019 - ITE 2019 Year in Review
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 24
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 25
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 26
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 27
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 28
ITE Journal – December 2019 - Impacts of Red-Light Cameras on Intersection Safety: A Bayesian Hierarchical Spatial Model
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 30
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 31
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 32
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 33
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 34
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 35
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 36
ITE Journal – December 2019 - Dynamic Flashing Yellow Arrow Operations
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 38
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 39
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 40
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 41
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 42
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 43
ITE Journal – December 2019 - Advisory Bike Lanes and Shoulders: Current Status and Future Possibilities
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 45
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 46
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 47
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 48
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 49
ITE Journal – December 2019 - Professional Services Directory
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 51
ITE Journal – December 2019 - 52
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