ITE Journal - March 2021 - 25

Table 1. Operational Study Site Characteristics.

Site ID
BH-01
GI-03
PH-33
SD-02
SD-03
SV-01
TP-01
TU-089
TU-124
TU-129

Posted
Number Number
Distance
Speed
of Legsa Through
to Nearest
Limit (mph)
Lanes (major)b Signal (ft)
45
4
4
1,263
45
3
4
641
45
3
5
652
50
3
2
5,254
50
4
4
4,892
45
4
4
1,099
45
3
4
1,068
2
4
1,779
40c
45
4
4
2,559
50
4
2
2,335

Crossing
Distance
(ft)d
70 / 75
90 / 100
73 / 68
70 / 63
86 / 90
78
82 / 90
78
74 / 72
79 / 65

Average
Sidewalk Driveway Density Bike
Daily Traffic Presence (driveways
Lane
(ADT)
(major)e per mile)f
(major) g
27,668
2
60
0
25,200
1
22
1
20,400
2
16
0
15,250
0
2
0
19,100
0
5
0
15,675
1
22
0
25,000
2
25
2
24,028
0
28
2
18,366
2
36
2
10,300
0
6
2

Note: a 2 legs = midblock, 3 legs = T-intersection, 4 legs = cross intersection.
b
All sites had a TWLTL or left-turn lane present. A median pedestrian refuge island was not present at any of the sites.
c
The goal of this project was to consider sites with posted speed limits of 45 mph and above. Initial reviews indicated that this site had a posted speed limit of 45 mph; however, once in the field the Research Team determined
that the speed limit was 40 mph. The site was retained in the study because the actual 85th percentile speed was about 10 mph higher than the posted speed limit.
d
The crossing distance is the approximate distance from the pedestrian pushbutton to the far side edge line or edge of pavement. If the distance varies by direction, the crossing distances are provided as WB/EB or NB/SB.
e
Sidewalk presence: 0 = No sidewalks, 1 = Sidewalk on one side, 2 = Sidewalk on both sides
f
The driveway density was calculated by determining the number of driveways on both sides of the major street for a one-mile segment (0.5 mile either side of the PHB).
g
Sidewalk presence: 0 = No sidewalks, 1 = Sidewalk on one side, 2 = Sidewalk on both sides

Table 2. Speed and Driver Yielding Rates by Site.
Site

Number Driver
85th
Posted
of
Percentile
Speed
Yield
Limit (mph) Speed (mph) Vehicles a Rate b

BH-01

45

47

274

96%

GI-03

45

44

290

93%

PH-33

45

53

265

100%

SD-02

50

53

133

95%

SD-03

50

54

208

93%

SV-01

45

48

199

99%

TP-01

45

Not available

294

99%

TU-089

40

50

295

100%

TU-124

45

48

275

99%

TU-129

50

54

All sites
a
b

93

100%

2,326

97%

Number of vehicles = total number of vehicles that approached the crossing pedestrians and bicyclists.
Driver yield rate = percent of approaching drivers who should have yielded and did so.

that focused on higher-speed roads (posted 45 to 50 mph
[72.4 km/hr to 80.4 km/hr]) found a similar driver-yielding
rate (97 percent) as observed on lower-speed roads (also
97 percent). This finding clearly shows that the PHB also
operates well on higher-speed roads.
While drivers are yielding to pedestrians in most
cases, they are not as compliant with the traffic control
device. Only 90 percent of the drivers stopped and stayed

stopped until the end of the steady red indication. During
the flashing red indication, about 59 percent of the drivers
rolled through the intersection without stopping initially.
Most of those rolling stops occurred during the queue
discharge after the pedestrian had completed their crossing
maneuver. None of these driver actions resulted in a
pedestrian/vehicle conflict.
Actual (non-staged) pedestrians and bicyclists were
preferred in the data collection efforts, but at sites where
pedestrian volumes were low, members of the research team
conducted staged crossings to obtain a larger sample of
motorist behavior data. A large proportion of the non-staged
pedestrians and bicyclists observed activated the PHB or
crossed when the device was operational. At a few sites,
many pedestrians and bicyclists crossed without activating
the PHB. These sites had large gaps in traffic where the
pedestrian or bicyclist was able to cross without affecting the
major-road traffic. The percent of the non-staged pedestrians
and bicyclists observed using the pedestrian pushbutton
was only 66 percent, which reflects the large number of
pedestrians and bicyclists who preferred to use the large
vehicle gaps for their crossings. The 2016 FHWA study found
that a greater number of pedestrians activated the device
when on 45-mph posted speed limit roads than on 40-mphor-less roads.11 That FHWA study also found that when the
hourly volume for both approaches was 1,500 vehicles per
hour or more, the percent of pedestrians activating the PHB
was always 90 percent or more.
w w w .i t e.or g

M a rch 2021

25


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