ITE Journal - March 2021 - 27

found a safety benefit with the installation of a PHB, and this
study supports those findings.6, 7
A cross-sectional study was conducted with a larger number
of PHBs crossings to identify relationships between roadway
characteristics and crashes at PHB sites, especially with respect
to the distance between a traffic control signal (TCS) and a
PHB. The cross-sectional study could include more PHB sites
because crash data before the installation of the PHB were not
needed; therefore, more of the older installations (prior to 2011)
could be considered. Crash data between January 1, 2007 to
September 30, 2017 were available in this study; therefore, up to
10.75 years of crash data were utilized where appropriate. Table 6
summarizes the descriptive statistics for these sites.
For total crashes, the roadway and geometry variables that
have a relationship to crash frequency at PHBs include the
number of lanes on the major roadway, median treatment, bike
lane presence, and number of lanes on the cross street. These
relationships are as expected, with more lanes on either the
major or cross street being associated with more crashes, and
with the presence of a raised median or pedestrian refuge island
being associated with fewer crashes. The presence of a bike
lane at the PHB being associated with fewer total crashes is a
desirable finding. Several studies have documented the benefit
of a raised median/refuge island for pedestrians, and this ADOT
study supports that finding. The distance to an adjacent traffic
signal variable only remained in the total rear-end and fatal
and injury rear-end crash type models where it was significant
at the 0.1 level (not the 0.05 level). When reviewing the effect
on rear-end crashes, the distance between TCS and PHB is less
influential than median presence or speed limit groups (35 mph
or less versus 40 mph or more). The study found no significant
Table 6. Descriptive statistics for PHB sites used in cross-sectional analysis.
Variable a
Legs
M_Lanes
M_LTL
M_PK_01
M_Bike_01
C_Lanes
Veh (AADT)
PB_Vol_MC
Sig_Dist
M_MT_R
Value (# of sites)
PSL_group Value (# of sites)

PHB (186 sites)
Minimum Maximum Average
2
4
3.4
2
9
4.5
0
2
0.8
0
1
0.1
0
1
0.6
0
6
1.4
1,385
50,510
23,500
40
2,130
475
1,548
277
13,249 b
Not Raised (119), Raised (67)
35 or less (97), 40 or more (89)

Note: a See Table 3 for description of roadway variables.
b
If Sig_Dist was greater than 1,500 ft, the value was set to 1,500 ft. At a certain distance, a traffic control
signal would probably not affect the operations or safety of a neighboring intersection. This distance was
assumed to be 1,500 ft based on engineering judgment.

difference in crashes at PHBs located at intersections versus
midblock locations.
This ADOT study permitted the inclusion of a larger number
of sites and a larger number of months of before and after
data than other studies, which aided in the ability to provide
statistically significant results. Crash reductions were found
to be significant at the 0.05 significance level for total crashes,
fatal and injury crashes, fatal and injury rear-end crashes,
and pedestrian-related crashes, regardless of the reference
group considered. Other crash types were also associated with
significant reductions depending on the reference group being
used and statistical significance level being accepted.

Using the Findings
The research team used the study's findings to develop detailed
recommendations regarding the design and operation of PHBs on
Arizona roadways. A summary of those recommendations follows:
ƒ	 Section 640 of the ADOT Traffic Engineering Guidelines and
Processes (TGP 640) provides guidance on the evaluation of
candidate locations for installing PHBs. The following are
recommended changes to the TGP 640:
		ƒ Add direction to first consult with the FHWA Safe
Transportation for Every Pedestrian (STEP) Guide or
the Arizona-specific STEP guide when determining
if a location is suitable for a PHB or for an alternate
crossing treatment.
		ƒ Revise the PHB application consideration based on the
posted speed limit by raising the accepted speed limit to
50 mph.
		ƒ Expand the evaluation criteria in Exhibit 640-A for
PHB locations.
		ƒ Add information about potential consideration of latent
crossing demand as criteria for a PHB.
ƒ	 To encourage consistency in PHB design, the research team
recommended developing a PHB standard drawing and
outlined specifics to address.
ƒ	 Consider two-stage PHB crossings when wide raised
medians, sufficient to accommodate expected number of
pedestrians, either exist or can be installed.
ƒ	 Consider developing separate design and guidelines to
implement the concept of side-by-side pedestrian/bicyclist
crossings at busy multi-use trails crossing state highways.
ƒ	 To complement the primary standards, guidance, and
options for the operation of PHBs contained in the MUTCD
and the Arizona Supplement within Sections 4F.02 and
4F.03, the research team suggested adding extensive
operational guidance to the TGP 640, making it more useful
as a full set of guidelines.
w w w .i t e.or g

M a rch 2021

27


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