ITE Journal - March 2021 - 28

References

Key Findings
Before-after safety study:
*	 Crash reductions found to be significant for total crashes,
fatal and injury crashes, fatal and injury rear-end crashes,
and pedestrian-related crashes regardless of the reference
group considered (see Table 5).

Cross sectional safety study:
*	 PHBs with a raised median or pedestrian refuge island
had fewer total crashes.
*	 There is no significant difference in crashes at PHBs
located at intersections versus midblock locations.

Operational study:

Kay Fitzpatrick

*	 Driver yielding on higher-speed streets (posted 45 to
50 mph) is similar to driver-yielding rates on lowerspeed streets (both categories had an average of
97 percent yielding).

Additional Research Needs
The findings from this research identified the following research needs:
ƒ	 Determine under what circumstances it is desirable to
synchronize PHBs with the adjacent traffic signals to avoid
unnecessarily stopping motorists at the signal or the PHB
crossing; unnecessary stops might cause more red-light
violations or rear-end crashes at either the signal or the PHB.
ƒ	 Determine how to best educate drivers, pedestrians, and
bicyclists on the appropriate use of and response to PHBs. itej
28

Ma rch 2021

ite j o u rn al

1.	 Federal Highway Administration (2009) Manual on Uniform Traffic Control
Devices and Arizona Supplement, adopted January 13, 2012.
2.	 Federal Highway Administration (2014) Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon Guide
- Recommendations and Case Study. https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/ped_
bike/tools_solve/fhwasa14014/ (Accessed September 22, 2020).
3.	 Federal Highway Administration (2019) Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon.
https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/provencountermeasures/ped_hybrid_
beacon/ (Accessed September 22, 2020).
4.	 Arizona Department of Transportation (undated) Pedestrian Hybrid
Beacon. https://azdot.gov/about/transportation-safety/pedestrianhybrid-beacon (Accessed September 22, 2020).
5.	 Fitzpatrick, K., M. Cynecki, M. Pratt, E. S. Park, and M. Beckley (2019)
Evaluation of Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons on Arizona Highways, ADOTSPR-756. https://apps.azdot.gov/files/ADOTLibrary/publications/project_
reports/pdf/spr756.pdf (Accessed September 22, 2020).
6.	 Fitzpatrick, K., and E.S. Park (2010). Safety Effectiveness of the HAWK
Pedestrian Crossing Treatment. Report No. FHWA-HRT-10-042, Federal
Highway Administration, Washington, D.C.
7.	 Zegeer, C. et al. (2017). Development of Crash Modification Factors for
Uncontrolled Pedestrian Crossing Treatments. NCHRP Report 841.
8.	 Fitzpatrick, K., S. Turner. M. Brewer, P. Carlson, N. Lalani, B. Ullman, N.
Trout, E.S. Park, D. Lord, and J. Whitacre (2006) Improving Pedestrian
Safety at Unsignalized Crossings. TCRP Report 112/NCHRP Report 562.
Transportation Research Board.
9.	 Turner, S., K. Fitzpatrick, M. Brewer, and E.S. Park (2006). " Motorist Yielding
to Pedestrians at Unsignalized Intersections Findings from a National
Study on Improving Pedestrian Safety. " TRR 1982, 1-12.
10.	 Fitzpatrick, K., R. Avelar, M. Pratt, M. Brewer, J. Robertson, T. Lindheimer,
J. Miles. (2016) Evaluation of Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon and Rapid
Flashing Beacons. FHWA Technical Report HRT-16-040. Washington, D.C.
Washington, DC.
11.	 Fitzpatrick, K. and M. Pratt (2016) Road User Behaviors at Pedestrian
Hybrid Beacons, FHWA-HRT-16-039. Washington, DC.

Kay Fitzpatrick, Ph.D., P.E., PMP (F) is a senior
research engineer with Texas A&M Transportation
Institute (TTI). Kay has been involved with ITE for
many years and has served as president of the ITE
Brazos Valley Section, chair of a Texas District
meeting, and member and chair of the ITE Traffic Engineering
Council; has written chapters in the ITE Traffic Engineering
Handbook and the Urban Street Geometric Design Handbook and
was one of the assistant editors for the 2000 edition of the ITE
Traffic Control Devices Handbook; and is the co-author of several
ITE Briefing Sheets, ITE Compendium articles, and ITE Journal
papers. She has been honored with the Burton W. Marsh Award for
Distinguished Service to ITE.


https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/ped_bike/tools_solve/fhwasa14014/ https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/ped_bike/tools_solve/fhwasa14014/ https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/provencountermeasures/ped_hybrid_beacon/ https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/provencountermeasures/ped_hybrid_beacon/ https://www.azdot.gov/about/transportation-safety/pedestrian-hybrid-beacon https://www.azdot.gov/about/transportation-safety/pedestrian-hybrid-beacon https://apps.azdot.gov/files/ADOTLibrary/publications/project_reports/pdf/spr756.pdf https://apps.azdot.gov/files/ADOTLibrary/publications/project_reports/pdf/spr756.pdf

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