ITE Journal - March 2021 - 46

records of incidents of vehicles running onto tracks or potential risk
of incorrect turns identified by traffic agencies. At each site, data
collection was conducted twice-before and after implementation
of the proposed countermeasures (Table 2). The research team
collected speed data on exclusive turning lanes near highway-rail
grade crossings, as shown in Figure 2b, for 3-4 hours in both
daytime and nighttime. The hesitation behaviors were identified
by applying hesitation identification criteria on the collected speed
data. Videos were used to exclude any " fake " hesitations, such as
very low speed due to a red traffic signal, a queue, and unnecessary

factors. The hesitation rates, which are defined as the quotient of
the count of hesitation events divided by the count of vehicles on
the exclusive lane, were compared before and after the implementation. The hesitation rate reduction due to the implementation
was calculated to evaluate the safety performance of the proposed
countermeasures in reducing the risk of incorrect turns onto rail
tracks at highway-rail grade crossings. Hypothesis testing was
applied to determine if the reduction of hesitation rate due to the
proposed countermeasures was significant at a confidence level of
90 percent or higher.7

Table 1. Characteristics of study sites
Forest Hill
Blvd.

Pembroke
Rd.

Commercial
Blvd.

Hollywood
Blvd.

Hallandale
Beach Blvd.

N. Boulevard

Functional classification

Urban principle arterial

Intersecting road

I-95

City

Lake Clarke Shores

Pembroke Park

Oakland Park

Hollywood

Through/right-turn lanes

2/1

3/1

3/1

3/1

3/1

1/1

Right-turn lane length before tracks

525 ft.

90 ft.

300 ft.

140 ft.

130 ft.

140 ft.

Downstream access point

On-ramp

Speed limit

35 mph

40 mph

45 mph

35 mph

35 mph

30 mph

Driveway/side street closed to rail
tracks in upstream

No

No

No

Yes

Yes

No

AADT

47,500

48,500

62,500

49,000

45,500

23,000

Busch Blvd (SR-580)
Tampa

Intersection

Table 2. Treatments and data collection
Forest Hill Blvd.

Pembroke Rd.

Commercial
Blvd.

Hollywood Blvd.

Pavement markings 3 right-turn arrows
No pavement
on right-turn lane in with " ONLY " wording
markings
+ 4 right-turn arrows
" before " stage

3 right-turn arrows
with " ONLY "
wording

2 right-turn arrows
with " ONLY "
wording

No pavement
markings

1 right-turn arrow

4 straight arrows
Pavement markings
with guidance
on right-turn lane in
information and
after stage
I-95 shield

2 straight arrows
with guidance
information and
I-95 shield

2 straight arrows
with guidance
information and
I-95 shield

1 straight arrow
with guidance
information and
I-95 shield

1 straight arrow
with guidance
information and
SR-580

1 straight arrow
with guidance
information and
I-95 shield

Additional treatment

Hallandale
Beach Blvd.

N. Boulevard

Dynamic Envelope

Before data collection
Time of day (day)

9:50 a.m.-3:00 p.m.

9:55 a.m.-2:59 p.m.

9:53 a.m.-3:00 p.m.

9:58 a.m.-2:59 p.m.

9:52 a.m.-3:45 p.m. 10:04 a.m.-2:00 p.m.

Time of day (night)

7:55 p.m.-12:22 a.m.

8:01-11:56 p.m.

7:40-11:59 p.m.

7:45-11:58 p.m.

7:56-11:54 p.m.

Weather

Clear

7:49-11:45 p.m.

After data collection
Time of day (day)

10:12 a.m.-1:27 p.m.

9:12 a.m.-12:20 p.m. 10:54 a.m.-1:01 p.m. 9:03 a.m.-12:21 p.m. 10:18 a.m.-1:13 p.m. 10:07 a.m.-12:56 p.m.

Time of day (night)

8:37-11:38 p.m.

7:54-11:27 p.m.

Weather

Clear

46

Ma rch 2021

ite j o u rn al

7:27-11:02 p.m.

7:23-11:25 p.m.

7:47-11:02 p.m.

8:09-10:56 p.m.



ITE Journal - March 2021

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