ITE Journal - March 2021 - 48

Conclusions
Incorrect turns at highway-rail grade railroad crossings are a
serious issue in traffic safety management. This study conducted
before-after studies at selected highway-rail crossings in Florida to
evaluate a cost-effective countermeasure that replaces continuous
right-turn or left-turn arrows with straight arrows before at-grade
crossings in conjunction with guidance information to reduce
driver confusion in selecting proper turning points as they
approach at-grade crossings. Based on the before-after comparisons
of hesitation rates, the following conclusions were obtained:
Replacement of continuous right-turn arrows with straight
arrows plus guidance information on pavement upstream
of railroad grade crossings can effectively prevent incorrect
right-turns onto railroad tracks.
The effectiveness of straight arrows plus guidance information
on pavement at highway-rail grade crossings is more significant in
a low-visibility environment (i.e., nighttime) and are more likely to
avoid frequent incorrect turns onto rail tracks.
Overall, the proposed countermeasures can significantly reduce
hesitation rates of drivers at at-grade crossings by 85 percent
in daytime and 97 percent in nighttime at a confidence level of
99.9 percent.
To implement the treatment, engineers need to ensure enough
longitudinal space on turning lanes to paint straight arrows and
guidance messages. On some crossing with short turning lanes (less
than 53 ft. [16.2 m]), a straight arrow without guidance information
could be considered. itej

References
1.	 Lin, P-S., Fabregas, A., Kourtellis, A., Lall, S., & Bato, M. (2013). Improved
traffic control measures to prevent incorrect turns at highway-rail grade
crossings. Retrieved from National Transportation Library. https://rosap.
ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/26808 (Accessed February 2, 2021).
2.	 Pour-Rouholamin, M., Zhou, H., Shaw, J., & Tobias, P. (2015). Current
practices of safety countermeasures for wrong-way driving crashes. TRB
94th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers.
3.	 Ouyang, Y. (2014). " North Texas Tollway Authority Wrong-Way Driving
Program " . Proceedings of the 2013 National Wrong-Way Driving Summit,
81-106. https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/handle/2142/49045 (Accessed
February 2, 2021).
4.	 Chrysler, S. T., & Schrock, S. D. (2005). Field evaluations and driver
comprehension studies of horizontal signing. Retrieved from Texas
Transportation Institute Library. https://static.tti.tamu.edu/tti.tamu.edu/
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5.	 Kaminski Leduc, J. L. (2008). Wrong-way driving countermeasures.
Retrieved from https://www.cga.ct.gov/2008/rpt/2008-r-0491.htm
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7.	 Washington, S. P., Karlaftis, M. G., & Mannering, F. (2010). Statistical and
Econometric Methods for Transportation Data Analysis (2nd ed.). CRC Press.
8.	 Gabree, S., Chase, S., & daSilva, M. (2014). Effect of dynamic envelope
pavement markings on vehicle driver behavior at a highway-rail grade
crossing. 2014 Joint Rail Conference.

Zhenyu Wang, Ph.D. (M) is a senior research faculty
of Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR)
at University of South Florida with 15 years of research
experience in traffic safety, crash modeling, naturalistic
driving studies, and traffic simulation. He has conducted and managed 30+ research projects through grants funded by the
Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT), U.S. Department of
Transportation (USDOT), and the National Cooperative Highway
Research Program (NCHRP).
Pei-Sung Lin, P.E., PTOE (F) is a program director at
CUTR at the University of South Florida. He is also the
director of the Florida LTAP Center. His research
interests include traffic signal systems, pedestrian and
bicycle safety, railroad safety, railroad trespasser fatality
mitigation, wrong-way driving prevention, work zone safety, congestion management, and automated and connected vehicle research.
Abhijit Vasili is a graduate research assistant in the
CUTR at the University of South Florida. He is a
doctoral candidate pursuing a Ph.D. in Electrical
Engineering at University of South Florida, Tampa, FL,
USA. His primary areas of research are connected
vehicles, systems engineering, and data science. He is currently
working on the THEA (Tampa Hillsborough Expressway Authority)
Connected Vehicles Pilot project.
Rui Guo is a lecturer of the Department of Engineering
Education in the UF Herbert Wertheim College of
Engineering. Her research interests include multimodal
traffic safety, sustainable transportation, air transportation and engineering education. She has conducted 10+
funded research projects from state departments of transportations as
well as national agencies, presented her studies in core conferences,
and published research papers in major peer-reviewed journals.
Runan Yang is a graduate research assistant in CUTR at
University of South Florida (USF). Her research interests
include statistic modeling in transportation safety, lighting
data visualization, and analysis. She earned her bachelor's
degree from Chang'An University, China and is pursuing
her doctoral degree in Civil Engineering in University of South Florida.
Runan serves as a board member of the ITE USF Student Chapter.


https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/26808 https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/26808 https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/handle/2142/49045 https://static.tti.tamu.edu/tti.tamu.edu/documents/0-4471-2.pdf https://static.tti.tamu.edu/tti.tamu.edu/documents/0-4471-2.pdf https://www.cga.ct.gov/2008/rpt/2008-r-0491.htm

ITE Journal - March 2021

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