ITE Journal - May 2020 - 29

can be used to help prevent crashes, or at least reduce the severity
of injuries should a crash occur. Embracing a Safe System does not
mean absolving the user of responsibility. Rather, it recognizes
the important role that the planning, design and operation of the
infrastructure can play. Two key Vision Zero concepts underpin the
application of the Safe System framework by infrastructure owners
and operators:
Reducing Human Error. Humans are fallible and will make
errors. Safe System designs anticipate and reduce the likelihood
of errors.
Accommodating Human Injury Tolerance. The human body
has a limited ability to absorb energy. Safe System designs reduce
or eliminate opportunities for crashes resulting in forces beyond
human endurance.
The Safe System framework takes these two concepts and
attempts to provide the practitioner with a methodology for
applying them in practice.

Reducing Human Error

AAA Foundation

To reduce the likelihood of human error, there are three principles
that transportation professionals can put into place.
Separating users in space. Creating separate spaces for different
users creates physical separation enhancing safety. Elements such
as separated bike lanes, pedestrian refuge islands, and protected
left-turns physically separate cars from vulnerable users helping
reduce the likelihood of a crash and injury/death.

Figure 2: Key behavior identified in the AAA Foundation 2017 Safety
Culture Index that resulted in transportation safety concerns.

ITE Develops Speed
Management Resources
with RTZ Grant
In 2018, in collaboration with the Vision Zero Network, ITE
received a RTZ Grant, to advance speed management within the
context of a Safe System approach in the United States.
Through this grant, ITE developed tools and resources to support
a Safe System approach to setting speed limits. ITE developed a
resource hub, found on the Setting Speed Limits section of the
ITE website. Several resources are available there, including an
explanation of the elements of speed management for safety;
webinars; case studies; and an online community portal where
speed management is discussed. Two speed management
workshops were held in Austin, TX, USA and Durham, NC, USA in
2019 to advance discussions on how these resources could be
applied in real-world settings.
ITE has also increased its focus on identifying broader efforts
by others who integrating seed management in a Safe System
approach.The April 2019 issue of ITE Journal included two articles
on the Safe System approach: "Speed, Kinetic Energy, and the Safe
System Approach to Safer Roadways" from the Highway Safety
Research Center, and "Canada and the Safe System Approach to
Road Safety" by Neil Arason.

Providing space for recovery is also key in the Safe System
approach, particularly in rural areas. Studies have found that
shoulder width and clear zones can lead to an increase in safety.7
Separating users in time. Separating users in time allows
different users to use the same space at different times. For
example, a pedestrian scramble phase at a traffic signal provides
pedestrians with exclusive use of the intersection and ensures that
pedestrians are not crossing at the same time cars are turning.
Improving user awareness, attentiveness, and performance.
Improving the performance of all road users increases the
likelihood of safety, and can be achieved through these measures:
1.	 Increase pedestrian/bicyclist visibility (and other
non-motorist users). Seventy percent of pedestrian fatalities
occur at night, according to the National Highway Traffic
Safety Administration.6 Increased visibility can be achieved
through designs that place pedestrians in a more visible
position to drivers at intersections, encouraging pedestrians
to wear reflective colors at night, increased lighting, etc.
2.	 Increase attentiveness by limiting distractions for all users
(cell phones use when driving and walking, other in-car
activities not related to driving). To decrease distractions,
applications and programs that incentivize and reward
w w w .i t e.or g

May 2020

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https://www.ite.org/technical-resources/topics/speed-management-for-safety/setting-speed-limits/ https://www.aaafoundation.org/2017-traffic-safety-culture-index/ http://www.ite.org

ITE Journal - May 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of ITE Journal - May 2020

ITE Journal - May 2020 - Cover1
ITE Journal - May 2020 - Cover2
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ITE Journal - May 2020 - 4
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ITE Journal - May 2020 - Cover3
ITE Journal - May 2020 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/ite-journal-june-2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/ite-journal-may-2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/ite-journal-april-2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/ITE_Mar2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/ITE_Jan2021
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/ITE_Dec2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/ITE_Nov2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/ITE_Oct2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/ITE_Sept2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/ITE_Aug2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/ITE_July2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/ITE_June2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/ITE_May2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/ITE_April2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/ITE_March2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/ITE_February2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/ITE_January2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/ITE_December2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G110939_ITE_November2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G110110_ITE_October2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G110109_ITE_September2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G108559_ITE_August2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G108250_ITE_July2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G107225_ITE_June2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G104039_ITE_May2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G104038_ITE_April2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G104036_ITE_March2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G103582_ITE_February2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G102868_ITE_January2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G100155_ITE_December2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G100154_ITE_November2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G99495_ITE_October2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G98028_ITE_September2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G97366_ITE_August2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G96287_ITE_July2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G94315_ITE_June2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G93877_ITE_May2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G93065_ITE_Apr2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G91484_ITE_Mar2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G89434_ITE_Feb2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/ITE/G86608_ITE_Jan2018
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