The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 20

Blockchain basics
What is blockchain?

A

blockchain is a type of distributed
(decentralized) ledger that records
transactions across several computers,
or "nodes," and is resistant to tampering and revision. As transactions are
executed over this network, the nodes
compare transaction entries with the
ledger and agree whether to accept
each entry onto a block or disregard
it. The nodes also determine how individual blocks are linked together.
There are open ledgers and private
ledgers. Open ledgers use public-key
cryptography and proof of work to
maintain integrity. Private ledgers may

''

require varying levels of permission
to view or alter records. Hyperledger
blockchains are generally permissioned
blockchains. The parties that join the
network are authenticated and authorized to participate. Enterprise Ethereum
Alliance blockchains may be public-key
or permissioned.
How many groups are working
on blockchain?
The number can be expected to vary
with time, but the worldwide accounting and professional services firm
Deloitte last August counted more
than 40 blockchain consortia around

A permissioned ledger framework for customer onboarding could
pave the way for establishing collective trust in digital identities.

''

- ANDREW MORRIS, NAFCU REGULATORY AFFAIRS COUNSEL

Hyperledger was established by The
Linux Foundation in December 2015
to create an enterprise-grade, opensource distributed (or "decentralized")
ledger framework for users to build and
run robust, industry-specific applications, platforms and hardware systems
to support business transactions. For
credit unions and others in the financial
industry, this framework is expected to
support streamlined settlement processes, improved liquidity in the market,
increased transparency and better products for consumers.
Indeed, many financial institutions, including credit unions, are
already beginning to pilot blockchain
20

technologies. A recent article in the
quarterly Bank Director magazine also
notes most of the world's largest banks
are in various stages of blockchain
technology development, offering
proofs of concepts, filing for patents,
funding startups or testing different
ways the technology can be deployed
to best advantage.
The potential for blockchain to make
transactions more efficient and less
vulnerable to fraud is already being
reviewed by technology firms. NAFCU
Regulatory Affairs Counsel Andrew
Morris, writing in a recent NAFCU
Cyber Café newsletter, said these firms
are looking at ways blockchain can be

the world, with 26 of them focused on
the financial services sector. Ten are
cross-sector. Another three are focused
on the life sciences and health care sector, and there are three more, with one
each focused on energy and resources;
technology, media and telecommunications; and the public sector. (Deloitte
Insights, "Banding Together for Blockchain," Aug. 16, 2017.)
The Deloitte article didn't name
all the consortia, but credit unions
are the focus of CULedger, which is
working on permissioned distributed
ledger technology.

used to streamline compliance with
know-your-customer and anti-moneylaundering requirements.
These requirements, set under rules
implementing the Bank Secrecy Act and
USA PATRIOT Act (which amended the
former), are administered by the NCUA
and the Treasury's Financial Crimes
Enforcement Network (FinCEN). In
general, the Bank Secrecy Act, coupled
with applicable guidance from the Federal Financial Institutions Examinations
Council (FFIEC), dictates the criteria for
a credit union's onboarding procedures
and systems for filing currency transaction reports (CTRs) and suspicious
activity reports (SARs).
"To the extent that blockchains can be
scaled to record any number of characteristics related to a transaction, one
can envision regulators using nodes on a
blockchain network to observe the identities of transacting parties in real time,"
wrote Morris. "Such a scheme might
remove certain reporting functions and
allow regulators to observe suspicious
activity as it occurs."

THE NAFCU JOURNAL  JANUARY-FEBRUARY 2018



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018

Conferences
From the Chair
Advocacy Snapshot
Washington and Industry Briefs
Growth Strategies
Stepping Into the Future
A Clear Path Forward
Economic Outlook: It’s Complicated
NAFCU 2018 Vendor Directory
Executive Spotlight
Management Insight
Compliance Central
Inside NAFCU Services
From the President’s Desk
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - Cover1
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - Cover2
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 1
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 2
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - Conferences
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - From the Chair
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 5
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - Advocacy Snapshot
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 7
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - Washington and Industry Briefs
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 9
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 10
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 11
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 12
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 13
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 14
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 15
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - Growth Strategies
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 17
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - Stepping Into the Future
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 19
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 20
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 21
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - A Clear Path Forward
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 23
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 24
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 25
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - Economic Outlook: It’s Complicated
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 27
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 28
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 29
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 30
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 31
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 32
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 33
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 34
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - NAFCU 2018 Vendor Directory
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 36
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 37
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 38
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 39
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 40
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 41
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 42
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 43
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 44
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 45
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 46
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 47
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 48
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 49
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 50
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 51
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - Executive Spotlight
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 53
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - Management Insight
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 55
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - Compliance Central
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 57
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - Inside NAFCU Services
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - 59
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - From the President’s Desk
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - Cover3
The NAFCU Journal January - February 2018 - Cover4
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/nafcu_NovemberDecember2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/nafcu_SeptOct2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/nafcu_JulAug2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/nafcu_MayJun2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/nafcu_MarApr2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/nafcu_JanFeb2020
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/nafcu_NovDec2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/G109023_nafcu_septoct2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/G106941_nafcu_julaug2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/G105388_nafcu_mayjun2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/G103030_nafcu_marapr2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/G88665_nafcu_janfeb2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/G100235_nafcu_novdec2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/G98517_nafcu_septoct2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/G96479_nafcu_julaug2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/G93390_nafcu_mayjune2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/G90161_nafcu_marapr2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/G88665_nafcu_janfeb2018
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/G83806_nafcu_novdec2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/G80296_nafcu_septoct2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/G79086_nafcu_julyaugust2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/G75911_nafcu_mayjune2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/G73247_nafcu_marapr2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/G71923_nafcu_janfeb2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/G69249_nafcu_novdec2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/nafcu_septoct2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/g63853_nafcu_julaug2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/g61005_nafcu_mayjun2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/g58935_nafcu_marapr2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/g56716_nafcu_janfeb2016
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/g55605_nafcu_novdec2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/g53582_nafcu_sepoct2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/g52154_nafcu_july2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/g50302_nafcu_mayjune2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/g48554_nafcu_marapr2015
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/g47118_nafcu_janfeb15
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/g45886_nafcu_novdec2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/g44155_nafcu_sepoct2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/g42892_nafcu_julyaug2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/g41296_nafcu_mayjun2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/g39799_nafcu_marapr2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/g38961_nafcu_janfeb2014
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/g38041_nafcu_novdec2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/g36539_nafcu_sepoct2013
https://www.nxtbook.com/ygsreprints/NAFCU/g34910_nafcu_julaug2013
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com